HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS JOHNSON'S GREAT SOCIETY?

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  • HOW SUCCESS-FUL WAS JOHNSON'S GREAT SOCIETY?
    • poverty and unemploy-ment
      • 1964 Equal Opportunity Act
        • co-ordinate initiatives to eradicate poverty
          • e.g. CAPs - community action programmes
            • aimed to allow poor to play a part in federal programmes
              • and empower southern black Americans
            • northern cities were taken over by militants
              • criticised Johnson for not doing enough
      • 'Job Corps' introduced
        • improve skills of un-employed inner city youths
        • difficulties as training done in camps with discipline problems
        • large companies e.g. IBM involved
        • success in placing jobs for 10,000 youths
      • continued JFK's Appalachian Regional Development Act 1965
        • $1.1 billion allocated to raising standards of living
          • Appalachian mountain regions
      • war on poverty cost $10 billion
        • families in poverty dropped 40m 1959 to 28m  1968
    • improving housing and cities
      • 1953 Housing and urban development act
        • constructed 240,000 houses
        • invested $2.9 million into urban renewal
      • demonstrations of cities and metropolitan act 1966
        • local govs. given 80% grants
          • congress authorised spending of $412m in 1966
            • rose to $512m in 1967
          • congress cut funding in 1968
            • limited impact of LBJ's reforms
      • 1968 Housing act
        • aimed to help inner city development
        • proposed to build 26m homes in ten years
          • first 3 years congress provided $1.7m in funds
        • no planning restrictions to make quick build houses
          • led to building of cheap, poorly built homes
    • education
      • elementary and secondary education act 1965
        • federal funding used to aid deprived children
          • allocated $1b a year to schools with high conc. of low income children
        • changed federal funds for education allocation
          • church run schools
          • only gave aid to specific schools
        • 1968 amended = bilingual education act
          • more aid to non english speakers
      • higher education act 1968
        • strengthen educational resources
          • and provide financial assistance for students in higher education
            • loans for college fees = low income families could attend
        • importance show by reauthorised 9 times including 1980, 1998 and 2008
    • medicare and medicaid
      • succeeded here where Truman and Kennedy failed
      • medicare 1965 - popular and well administrated
        • medical care for 65+ with no health insurance
          • 1965 only half of 65+ had private hospital insurance
        • in first year over 19 million social security recipients registered
      • medicaid designed for poor with no medical insurance
        • financed by federal and state governments
          • quality of healthcare was varied from state to state
    • civil rights legislations
      • promised to fulfil JFK's hopes for civil rights reform
        • civil rights act passed 1964
          • outlawed discrimination on basis of race, religion or sex in public places
      • offered equality and brought an end to legal segregation
      • 1965 voting rights act
        • eliminated literacy tests and appointed federal examiners to ensure correct voting handling
        • before 6% of blacks registered in Mississipi, after 60%
        • Virginia before 44% and after 43%
      • watts riots of 1965
    • domestic policy
      • greatest reforming periods in US history
        • 1963-1969 435 bills submitted to congress
      • GNP increased by 7% 1965, *% in 1965 and 9% 1966
      • tax reducation act of 1964 cut taxes by $10 billion
        • encouraged economic growth
      • did not solve problems of inner cities
        • left underfunded and full of crime, drugs and poverty
      • black americans had discrimination legally ended
        • faced social and economic discrimination in housing and jobs
      • 1966 election saw drop for great society policies
      • failed to win vietnam war

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