How pressure groups are undemocratic

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  • How PGs undermine democracy
    • Lobbying
      • EU
        • Numerous amounts of PG lobbyists
        • 2011 TransparencyRegister aimed to enhance accountability and imposer stricter rules on lobbying
          • BUT  it is optional to join, PGs don't have to sign up
        • Lots of protective interest groups that from peak associations
          • CAR INDUSTRY
            • ACEA; represents 15 car manufacturers including BMW, Volvo, Renault
              • Key policy concerns of CO2 emmissions, road charging, European safety standards
      • USA
        • Iron triangles
          • Defence Dept, Defence contractors, Senated Armed Services committee
          • don't factor in public interest
          • Linked to revolving door where politicians may be more favourable to certain groups to get job there after
            • Bill Tauzin represented Louisiana's 3rd district for 25 yrs and chaired healthcare committee
              • Then became President of PHRMA - huge role on Obamacare
            • People exploit their knowledge of and contacts to further PG interests at a price
            • Fprd employ a Vice Presideny of Governmental Affairs; Ojakl -  former deputy assistant to Bush for Govt affairs
        • NRA-ILA
        • K street corridor
        • Registered lobbyists doubled 2000-2005
      • UK
        • Retired army officers as secret lobbyists for manufacturers trying to make deals with UK army
          • Linked to revolving door where politicians may be more favourable to certain groups to get job there after
            • Bill Tauzin represented Louisiana's 3rd district for 25 yrs and chaired healthcare committee
              • Then became President of PHRMA - huge role on Obamacare
            • People exploit their knowledge of and contacts to further PG interests at a price
            • Fprd employ a Vice Presideny of Governmental Affairs; Ojakl -  former deputy assistant to Bush for Govt affairs
      • Idea that political influence can be bought
      • Considered very important and influential PG method
      • Importance of money
        • More important in federal systems with numerous access points
          • USA
          • Germany
          • PGs can target 1 of 3 federal branch and or state level govt
            • MADD is state based PG as campaigns for seatbelt laws/ sobrierty checkpoints etc
              • USA
          • More democratic as more opporutinitesfor political participation
        • less important as less access points in parliamentary govt
          • UK
            • insider outsider status more important as PGs seek to influence govt
              • insiders = Britsish Medical Associations and Confederation of British Industry (peak associations)
                • undemocratic when govt allows too much insider status
          • Germany is parliamentary
    • Importance of money
      • More important in federal systems with numerous access points
        • Germany
        • PGs can target 1 of 3 federal branch and or state level govt
          • MADD is state based PG as campaigns for seatbelt laws/ sobrierty checkpoints etc
          • More democratic as more opporutinitesfor political participation
        • less important as less access points in parliamentary govt
          • UK
            • insider outsider status more important as PGs seek to influence govt
              • insiders = Britsish Medical Associations and Confederation of British Industry (peak associations)
                • undemocratic when govt allows too much insider status
          • Germany is parliamentary

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