How international relations change in the years 1991-2003

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  • How did international relations change in the years 1991 - 2003?
    • The consequences of the soviet war on Afghanistan
      • Survivors were a generation that only knew war, hatred and fear
    • The impact of the Iraq War, 2003
      • Did not only impact Iraq it also changed international relations
        • Hussein was overthrown and the 1st free democratic elections in 50 years were held
          • The invasion caused 50,000 military deaths and up to 1,000,000 civilian deaths
            • The invasion caused tension within the  NATO alliance
              • The war damaged transatlantic relations as it made the world question US judgement
                • The First Gulf War had common consent, removing Hussein from power however had no broad agreement or coalition willing to carry out the act
                  • Some European leaders had conditional support for the war however public support from Europe and Middle East was against the war
                    • In the Middle East it was viewed as anti-Arabic and most Arabic leaders spoke out against the foreign occupation
                      • In 2003 the League of Arab States condemned the attack
                        • Countries including France, Germany, Canada and Russia refused to support the invasion
                          • Reaction to the war in the US and UK were mixed
                            • Anti-war protests were held in US and UK cities in the lead-up to the invasion and during the war, causing criticism towards both Bush and Blair
                              • The UN's reputation and authority as Iraq was invaded without the Security Council's approval
                                • Far from winning the war on terror, terrorism; specifically, anti-American suicide attacks increased
                                  • International relations were challenged as a result of the war in Iraq
                                    • More worryingly, Al-Qaeda was not defeated in Iraq
                                      • Iraq was plunged into a civil war which allowed militant groups to thrive
                                        • Eventually they merged into Islamic State (IS), which seized control of parts of Iraq
    • The "War on Terror"
      • Relations became more tense
        • "War on Terror" refers to actions by the US and allies against governments which support terrorist organisations.
          • 9/11 horrifically impacted international relations
            • People around the world had been affected
              • Therefore international relations changed to fight against this 'unseen' enemy
                • Countries gave the US support and believed unity was essential to destroy this enemy
    • Introduction
      • Between 1991-2003 relations changed dramatically. The Cold War ended but did not bring peace. A new kind of conflict: an ideological conflict between Muslim jihadists and Western capitalist democracies emerged. The jihadists used terrorism to scare and weaken the West and the western powers responded by declaring a 'war on terror'
    • Conclusion
      • Between 1991-2003 we can see that international relations changed greatly and tensions increased. IS continues to pose a challenge and a threat to relations

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