How far do you agree that the most sucessful social policy was the expansion of educationial policies between 1924-64?

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  • How far do you agree that the most successful social policy was the expansion of education opportunities 1924-64?
    • Education opportunities
      • 99% of urban and rural population literate by 1959 - a contrast to pre-1917 where 65% were illiterate
      • Polytechnic education re-emerged under Khrushchev in 1956 - set the foundations of Industry by allowing people to develop skills to work in urban areas rather than being trapped in rural areas
      • 1926 - children only attend school for average of 2.8 years - increase under Stain from 1934 = all students have 4 years primary/ 3 years incomplete secondary/ 2 years additional optional
      • 1964 - 2 million adults attend part time education
      • 1964- 1/2 million studying part time higher education
      • Ideologically unsuccessful as there is elitism that grows
      • By 1960 - 74% of women in education and health service
    • The status of women
      • Rise of female role models - Valentina Tereshkova = first woman is space
      • Limitations in politics; 1917 -10% in party were women by 1932 this had only increased to 16% (slow pace of growth)
      • Under Stalin women were given 6 week maternity leave and the number of nurseries doubled between 1928-30 - Greater Job security for mothers which was a contrast to after the Civil War where women were taken on less because the prospect of female employees becoming pregnant was an expensive risk for employers.
      • WW2 80,000 served in red army
      • 'Great retreat' 1936 - abortion outlawed and roubles needed for divorce increased from 4-50. Birth rates also increase from 25/1000 in 1935 to 31/1000 by 1940
    • Employment
      • 1932 internal passports restrict workers movements - ineffective as even by 1939 30% of urban workers changed jobs each quarter of the year
      • 1939- absenteeism a criminal offence that can warrant imprisonment
      • October 1930 - unemployment benefits cancelled in light of full employment
      • Number of hired workers rose from 11.6 million to 27 million by 1937
      • Working overtime became compulsory - if not engaging in social work they are liable for mobilization and by 1943 labour mobilization provided 7609,000 people
      • Between 1928-40 there were 10 million women works under the 5 year plans
      • 1960 - Women 49% of workforce


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