How did William establish control after the Battle of Hastings? 

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  • Created on: 25-05-18 19:59
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  • How did William establish control after the Battle of Hastings?
    • Hastings to London- William clears the path for coronation
      • As the English lords refused to surrender, he left a garrison of soldiers at Hastings and went to Romney to punish the town for its role in killing the Normans.
      • Dover swiftly surrendered after seeing the violence at Romney
      • Canterbury, fearful of violent attack surrendered too
      • Troops were sent to Winchester to take control of the treasury and make Edith surrender
      • To maintain some power, Edgar and English nobles swore oaths of loyalty to William
      • On Christmas day, William was crowned King of England by Archbishop of York, Ealdred
    • Dealing with powerful English Lords
      • To prove his legitimacy, William ensured that royal writs were continued to be written and Stigand remained Archbishop of Canterbury
      • English lords who pledged loyalty were able to keep their land. Others were able to buy land from him. Edwin, Morcar and Waltheof were allowed to keep their titles
      • For those who died at Hastings he disinherited their families, took their lands and gave it to Normans who fought for him; this helped him to establish a network of loyal Normans
      • In March 1067, he felt secure to return to Normandy so left the country in the hands of Odo (half brother) and William FitzOsbern (Earl of Hereford). He took potential enemies with him (Stigand, Edgar, Morcar, Edwin and Waltheof)
    • Dealing with early revolts
      • 1067 Welsh Borders- Welsh kings helped rebels who lost many men when they attacked Herefordshire
      • 1068 The South West- People were unhappy at the heavy taxes being levied + Godwinson's mother lived here. William beseiged Exeter and made a castle, taxing them less harshly. In 1068 and 1069, Godwinson's sons attempted to invade the area-- Exeter did not support-- showed building castles were effective
      • 1067 Kent- People were angry at how they were being treated by the Normans. They convinced Eustace of Boulogne to seize Dover castle
      • 1068 Edwin and Morcar- They submitted to William in hope of maintaining some power-- failed.
      • 1067 Northumbria- William had appointed Cospig (worked for Tostig before). He was ambushed and his head was hacked off after arriving
    • The Harrying of the North
      • In 1069, he appointed Robert Cumin who had an army that looted and killed- citizens fought back.
        • A general uprising led to Edgar coming back- joined locals and led an attack on York. Norman Shreiff sent a message to William.
          • WIlliam built a 2nd castle in York and appointed William FitzOsbern
      • King Swein had been courted by the English and believed he could take over-- In the summer of 1069, his fleet of 240 ships came.
        • The Normans offered money if they were to leave.
      • Orderic Vitalis claimed that about 5% of the population was killed- argued by historians. William aimed on making the area inhabitable destroying rebellions
    • Dealing with East Anglia 1070-71
      • The Danes returned with King Swein and then were joined by Hereward the Wake. However, they resigned by a peace deal.
        • Hereward caused more trouble with Morcar. Defeated, Morcar was imprisoned for the rest of his life.
    • Dealing with the earls' revolt 1075
      • Roger, son of William FitzOsbern and Earl of Hereford was dissatisfied by his lack of influence and plotted with Earl of East Anglia, Ralph. They persuaded Waltheof to get involved.
        • Revolt could have been dangerous as it could draw Bretons, Danes and English
        • However was a failure as Waltheof did not join in, Ralph was cornered in his manor and Roger was stopped leaving Herefordshire.
          • WIlliam dealt with the rebels decisively. Ralph + Roger lost their lands and Waltheof was beheaded
            • Roger, son of William FitzOsbern and Earl of Hereford was dissatisfied by his lack of influence and plotted with Earl of East Anglia, Ralph. They persuaded Waltheof to get involved.
              • Revolt could have been dangerous as it could draw Bretons, Danes and English
              • However was a failure as Waltheof did not join in, Ralph was cornered in his manor and Roger was stopped leaving Herefordshire.
                • WIlliam dealt with the rebels decisively. Ralph + Roger lost their lands and Waltheof was beheaded

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