India and the First World War

  • Created by: EliseJ
  • Created on: 13-03-18 09:04
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  • India in the First World War
    • How did the first world war change relations between Indians and British?
      • Declaration of war supported universally in India
        • Bal Tilak, most influential radical leader, Congress, gave support
      • Gandhi gave support 1914, South Africa, then 1915 in India
      • First Indian troops arrived Flanders 12th Oct 1914
      • During war India supplied 1.25 million+ men & £150 million
    • Why did Indians support the war?
      • Many out of loyalty + belief cause was just
      • Sikhs + some castes - believed fighting + dying in battle true aim of life
      • Wanted to prove Indians deserve equal respect
      • Politicians - increase support for home rule - Britain forced make concessions
    • What effect did war have on Congress?
      • Ending partition of Bengal 1911 reduced criticism
      • Outbreak of war = support Britain - many members saw war opportunity develop home rule idea
      • Congress leaders assumed support end in concessions after victory
      • 1916 - Congress + ML agreed joint strategy @ Lucknow Pact
      • Muslims guaranteed representation in Indian assembly - Congress more important member of Pact - ML being insignificant
    • How did British govt react?
      • Montagu (Secretary of State) = Montagu Declaration suggesting Indians be increasingly involved in govt administration
      • Montagu visited India 1917-18 - July 1918 Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms published
        • Montagu-Chelmsford became part of law 1919 in Govt of India Act - set up system known as 'dyarchy'
      • Executive council set up to advise Viceroy - inc. 3 Indians
      • Imperial Legislative council renamed Assembly - 146 members, 106 elected members
      • Council State set up - 61 members - review legislation
        • British members dealt w/defence, foreign affairs + taxation/ Indians dealt with agriculture, education + sanitation
      • Indian Provinces - Executive Coucnil appointed by Governor responsible  to Legislative council were appointed
      • Provincial govt now have Indian + British ministers
    • Why did Congress reject the Govt of India Act?
      • Dec 1919 - situation India got worse
      • 1917+ food prices rose
        • 1918-19 poor harvests - make inflation worse
      • Unrest broke out - particularly Bengal + Punjab
      • British govt v concerned might lose control - very few British troops stationed India
      • 1918 - Rowlatt Commission - 1919 + Rowlatts Act passed
        • Acts extended wartime restrictions into peacetime
        • enabled govt of India to arrest intern troublemakers w/o trial
        • Opposed by all Indian members of Imperial Legislative Council
    • Why were the Rowlatt Acts important?
      • Came just after ww1 - Indians expecting some form of self govt
      • Hopes had been raised then dashed by Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
      • Rowlatt acts suggested British govt no intention on relaxing grip on India
      • When acts passed - Tilak in London so Gandhi had to emerge as real leader of Congress
        • Tilak died 1920 - Gandhi unchallenged

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