How did public health improve throughout 1800-1914?

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  • How did public health improve throughout 1800-1914?
    • Scientific advances
      • 1838 Chadwick proves poor living conditions contribute to disease
      • 1855 Dr Snow challenges miasma theory by proving that cholera is waterborne
    • Louis Pasteur worked throughout the 1860s to prove 'germ theory' - the theory that disease is caused by microorganisms. He succeeded and also proved that fermentation processes are caused by resident microorganisms. Finally, people knew roughly what they were dying from
    • Changes in politics
      • The rising power of the socialist and labour parties forced Liberals to become more active on subjects such as public health
      • Laissez-faire gradually collapsed as it became clear that Britain's poorer people could not improve their living standards on their own
    • Public works
      • Kind-hearted industrialists such as George Cadbury and William Lever built model villages at Bourneville and Port Sunlight to protect their workers' living standards
      • Birmingham slums were demolished by Joseph Chamberlain who took advantage of the Artisan Dwellings Act 1875, which allowed him to purchase the area
      • Sir Joseph Bazalgette completely redesigned London's sewers throughout the 1860s, removing sewage from the streets
    • Laws
      • Artisan Dwellings Act 1875
      • Public health acts in 1848 and 1875
      • The reform act 1867 gave more people the vote, meaning politicians had to take notice of issues such as public health which mainly affected the working classes
      • Liberal Welfare Reforms 1906-1912:
        • Free school meals 1906
        • School medical exams 1907
        • School clinics 1912
        • Pensions 1908
        • Labour exchanges 1909
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