How antibiotics work

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  • How antibiotics work
    • Cell wall synthesis inhibitors e.g. beta-lactam
      • the enzyme transpeptidase which forms the links between NAG and NAM is blocked by beta-lactam, causing lysis
      • It has a similar structure to D-alanyl D-alanine, shows competitive inhibition and is irreversible
    • Protein synthesis e.g. aminoglycosides
      • target the 30S subunit of ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and are useful for treatment of infections by Gram-negative bacteria
    • Nucleic acid synthesis e.g. sulphonamides
      • blocks synthesis of folic acid, thereby inhibiting nucleic acid syntheis
      • it's selectively tocix in bacteria as they synthesize their own folic acid whereas humans and animals get folic acid from their diet
      • resistance for this has increased
    • Cell membrane e.g. daptomycin
      • mainly treats Gram-positive bacteria, binds specifically to bacteria cytoplasmic membranes, forms a pore, and induces rapid depolarization of membrane
      • the depolarized cell quickly loses its ability to synthesize macro- molecules such as nucleic acid and proteins, resulting in cell death

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