How and why did Elizabeth I change her foreign policy?

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  • How and why did Elizabeth I change her foreign policy?
    • Elizabeth takes direct action, 1885
      • June 1585: Dutch Protestant rep. came to England, offering Elizabeth the supreme power/ authority of the Netherlands.
        • she refused: she didn't want to dispose of an anointed monarch (Phillip I)
        • Instead, on 10 AUG 1585 she signed the treat of Nonsuch with the Dutch Protestants
          • effectively put England and Spain at war
            • Elizabeth would finance an army of 7,400 troops under Robert Dudley, who would work with the rebels' gov
        • OCT 1585 Elizabeth sent Sir Francis Drake to raid Spanish New World settlements to disrupt the flow of resources and finances.
          • only angered Phillip II
      • The Treaty of Berwick
        • 1586: England and Scotland: made England's border's secure.
          • to remain protestant and to help the other if invaded.
        • enabled Elizabeth to focus on the Netherlands.
    • Robert Dudley in the Netherlands, 1585-87
      • not given enough money for men/supplies to mount a large campaign
        • Elizabeth still wanted to negotiate.
      • campaign started badly
        • JAN 1586: Dudley accepted the title of Governor General of the Netherlands on Elizabeth's behalf.
          • infuriated Elizabeth: implied that she was deposing Phillip II.
      • Summer of 1586: only managed to slow Duke of Parma's advances.
        • SEP: took four fourts
          • JAN 1587: lost one fort when handed over to English Captain, Rowland Stanley, who defected to the Spanish.
            • The Dutch found it difficult to trust Dudley.
              • he was called back to England in NOV 1586 but returned to the Netherlands in JUN 1587.
                • able to prevent the Spanish take over of the deep water port of Ostend: important for the failure of the Armada.
                  • called back for good at the end of 1587.
    • The failure of the campaign in the Netherlands
      • Elizabeth was never fully behind the Rebels: wanted to negotiate and didn't send enough funds.
      • Dudley and Elizabeth had different aims for the Netherlands: He wanted to liberate them to be independent but Eliza. wanted it to be governed like in 1548.
      • Relations between Elizabeth and the Dutch leaders were poor because of Elizabeth's lack of commitment.
    • Drake singes the King of Spain's beard, 1587
      • MAR 1587: Drake was sent to attacks Spain's navy.
        • 19 APR: Cariz harbor (Spain's most important Atlantic Port) and destroyed 30 ships as well as provisions
          • this is known as the 'singing of the kings sbeard'
      • spent several weeks attacking to coast of Portugal to capture sips and bring treasure to England
        • lead to the delay of the Armada, giving Elizabeth more tine to prepare.

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