Hovland-yale model

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  • hovland- yale model (persuation + attitude change)
    • source factors
      • Bochner and Insko asked students to indicate how much sleep was required to maintain good health most said eight hours however when exposed to two different sources of opinion adovcating a different position students were swayed far more by the expert source even when the discrepancy between their own beliefs and those of the expert were extreme
      • credible experts are particularly power source
      • the use of attractive sources can be particularly effective in attitude change when used as part of the peripheral route to persuasion
      • research support for source factors
        • Morton and Campbell examined the effects of information source on peers attitudes towards an unfamiliar child with autism. children with the mean age of ten received information about an unfamiliar child with autism supposedly by  different sources such as a teacher parent or doctor .
          • children reported more  favourable attitudes towards  child when the information was provided by extra- familial source  e.g. doctor than when provided by a parent
    • message factors
      • McGuire suggests that low levels of fear do little to motivate an audience whereas high levels can also rebound because they create so much anxiwety in the audience that it interferes with their ability to process the information in the message
      • low fear and high fear messages do not appear as effective as moderate fear messages
      • as children age they better understand the persuasive intent of advertisments and are less influenced by them
      • research support for message factors
        • Lewis provides support for the effectiveness of fear arousing messages in a drink driving campaign. participants viewed two advertisement and completed two questionnairesthe first assessing pre-exposure attitudes and intentions and the second two or four weeks later assessing attitudes and behaviour
          • they found that although fear-arousing messages were more persuasive in the period immediately after exposure to a message long term attitude change was more likely with positive e.g. humorous campaigns
    • audience factors
      • McGuire suggested that higher intelligence are more confident in their own views and therefore harder to persuade
      • McGuire suggested that low intellegence auidences are less likely to process the content of a message and so are less likely to be influence by it
      • intelligent audiences are likely to process the message in more depth thereforewould reject simple onesided arguments which are more effective for less intelligent audiences preferring to hear both sides of an argument before making a decision
      • research support for audience factors
        • igartua tested the idea that an efficent way to deal with low involvment of an audience is to insert the message within an entertainment context.
          • they used fictional short stories to illustrate hiv/aids prevention. the findings show that the better the qualitt of the fictional story the more cognitive processing was induced and a more favourable attitude towards preventive behaviour was stimulated
            • this study demonstrates that audience factors do not exist independently of message factors and that by changing the nature of the message the limitations of the audience can be overcome
  • the use of attractive sources can be particularly effective in attitude change when used as part of the peripheral route to persuasion

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