Hormones in plants and humans

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  • Hormones
    • Humans
      • Menstrual Cycle
        • Stages
          • 1
            • Bleeding Starts
            • Lining of the uterus lining breaks down for about 4 days
          • 2
            • Lining of the uterus builds back up again
            • from day 4-14 a thick spongy layer builds up ready to receive a fertilised egg
          • 3
            • An egg is developed and released from the ovary at day 14
          • 4
            • The wall is maintained for  14 days until day 28
            • If no fertilised egg has landed on the uterus wall by day 28 the lining will break down and the cycle starts again
        • Hormone Control
          • FSH (Follicle- Stimulating Hormone)
            • Causes an egg to mature in one of the ovaries
            • Stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen
            • Produced by the pituitary gland
          • Oestrogen
            • Produced in the ovaries
            • Causes the pituitary gland to produce LH
            • Inhibits the further release of FSH
          • LH (Luteinising Hormone)
            • Produced by the pituitary gland
            • Stimulates the release of an egg
      • Increasing and Reducing Fertility
        • Oestrogen can be used as a method of contraception as it prevents the release of an egg
          • When taken every day it inhibits the release of FSH and the egg development and production stay stopped
        • Progesterone reduces fertility by stimulating the production ot thick cervical mucus which stops sperm from getting through
        • The pill is a contraceptive method, it combines oestrogen and progesterone
          • Not 100% effective
          • Reduces the risks of getting some types of cancer
          • Can cause side effects
        • FSH and LH can be injected to stimulate egg release
          • Helps a lot of women to get pregnant
          • It doesn't always work
          • Too many eggs could be released causing unexpected multiple pregnancies
      • IVF
        • Increasing and Reducing Fertility
          • Oestrogen can be used as a method of contraception as it prevents the release of an egg
            • When taken every day it inhibits the release of FSH and the egg development and production stay stopped
          • Progesterone reduces fertility by stimulating the production ot thick cervical mucus which stops sperm from getting through
          • The pill is a contraceptive method, it combines oestrogen and progesterone
            • Not 100% effective
            • Reduces the risks of getting some types of cancer
            • Can cause side effects
          • FSH and LH can be injected to stimulate egg release
            • Helps a lot of women to get pregnant
            • It doesn't always work
            • Too many eggs could be released causing unexpected multiple pregnancies
        • Collecting eggs from womans ovaries and mixing them with mans sperm the transferring them into woman's uterus
        • FSH and LH are given beforehand to stimulate egg production
    • Plants
      • Auxin
        • Is a plant growth hormone
        • Produced near the tips of shoots and roots
        • Extra auxin in shoots helps it to grow
        • Extra auxin in roots inhibits growth
      • Growth in shoots and roots
        • Phototrophism
          • Shoot grows towards light
          • Auxin is produced on opposite side to source of light
          • This makes the cells elongate so the shoot bends towards the light
        • Gravitropism
          • When a shoot is growing sideways gravity makes more auxin accumulate on the lower side
          • This makes the cells elongate and the shoot bends against gravity and upwards
          • A root growing sideways will have more auxin on its lower side because of gravity
          • The extra auxin inhibits growth on the lower side so the root bends down in the direction of gravity
        • Geotropism
          • If there is more water on one side of a plants roots more auxin is produced on the side with more water
          • This inhibits the growth on that side making the root bend towards the water

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