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  • henry and becket
    • In 1162 he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Henry.
      • The Becket affair was an argument between the king and the Church about power. It ended in notorious circumstance, with Becket killed in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170.
        • Then Becket excommunicated three bishops who supported Henry. In rage, Henry is said to have shouted: Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?
          • Four knights heard this and, in a misplaced effort to please Henry, rode to Canterbury, and murdered Becket at the altar of the Cathedral on 29 December 1170.
      • In 1174 Henry II did penance at Becket's tomb, but by then the damage to Henry's reputation was done.
        • Becket refused to sign the Constitutions of Clarendon – he said that it would mean that clerics were punished twice for the same crime.
          • At a Great Council held at Northampton in 1164, Becket was found guilty of treason.Becket fled to France.
        • In 1170, the Pope threatened to excommunicate Henry, so Henry let Becket return to England. Becket had won.
  • witches and punishments
    • There was no police force in the Medieval period so law-enforcement was in the hands of the community.
    • Stocks were wooden blocks with a hole for the head and the hands. They were used for smaller punishments like stealing. Most peasants were the thieves because they didn’t have enough money to but their own things. The offender was locked in the stock and put on public display just to humiliate them in front of the whole village.
      • cut off a hand and there was nothing the victim could do because they could hardy move in the stocks. Eventually if they had their hand cut off they would die from loss of blood.
    • The offender would me strapped to horses (one arm or leg to one horse) and then on command the horses would start running and that would rip the offenders arms and legs off. The person would die quickly and painfully through blood and limb loss.
    • There is a trap door under the hanging spot that the person that did the hanging takes the victim once he or possibly even she is dead.
    • If accused of witchcraft, the accused was forced to confess, even if he was innocent, through brutal torture.  Then he was hanged or burnt alive for his crimes.  Laws against witchcraft were further tightened when they began to be used for personal vendettas against the accused or in order to gain property of the accused.
    • When we talk about Witches and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages we must know that Witches were often portrayed as old, ugly and bedraggled women.  This is because the church wanted them to be targets of dislike and hatred.
    • During the period, the keeping of 'familiars' in animal form was an indicator of witchcraft. These domestic pets would supposedly help their witches practice magic. They would also attach themselves to her and drink her blood.Yuck.
      • these were seen as marks of the Devil. Bodies of the accused would be stripped naked and shaved of all body hair until a sign of the Devil was revealed. Witch-finders like Hopkins would also stab the accused and if they didn't bleed they were witches
  • the black death
    • The Black Death was an infamous plague causing an estimated 20 million deaths in Europe.
      • Doctors were powerless against infectious disease. People were weakened by war and harvest failures.
        • Germs, the fleas which carried them, and the rats which carried the fleas, flourished in the dirty towns. Busy trade routes carried the plague from one place to another.
          • The plague arrived at Melcombe Regis in Dorset in June 1348 and it spread throughout the south of England. In 1349 it reached Wales, Ireland and the north of England. By 1350, it had made it to Scotland. Estimates suggest as much as half the population died.
            • Poor medical knowledge. Medieval doctors did not understand disease, and had limited ability to prevent or cure it. So, when the plague came, doctors were powerless to stop it.
              • Medieval doctors were not certain what caused the plague, but believed it could be the result of:
                • The plague arrived at Melcombe Regis in Dorset in June 1348 and it spread throughout the south of England. In 1349 it reached Wales, Ireland and the north of England. By 1350, it had made it to Scotland. Estimates suggest as much as half the population died.
                  • Poor medical knowledge. Medieval doctors did not understand disease, and had limited ability to prevent or cure it. So, when the plague came, doctors were powerless to stop it.
                    • Medieval doctors were not certain what caused the plague, but believed it could be the result of:
                      • bad smells and corrupt air         enemies who had poisoned the wells
                • bad smells and corrupt air         enemies who had poisoned the wells
          • the movements of the planets
    • staring at a victim   wearing pointed shoes
      • strangers to villages too were blamed
        • a punishment from God
          • the movements of the planets
      • 1066 battle of hastings
        • in the early morning of 14 October 1066, two great armies prepared to fight for the throne of England. On a hilltop 7 miles from Hastings were the forces of Harold, who had been crowned king nine months earlier.
          • At the end of September 1066, he sailed over to England from France with around 700 ships and a very large army.
        • The army from France were much better-trained than the English, and had better weapons and horses. The English army were tired from the journey and also because they had recently had a battle with a Norwegian army, whose leader wanted Harold's crown too.
        • Eventually, King Harold II was killed. It is thought he was struck in the eye with an arrow,
          • the english army got tricked because the french made a scene making out that william was dead this cause the english to chase them down the hill and the normans were finaly able to break the english wall
            • he built a church over the dead bodies
      • His six wives were Catherine of Aragon (married in 1509), Anne Boleyn (1533), Jane Seymour (1536), Anne of Cleves (1540), Catherine Howard (1540) and Catherine Parr (1543). Henry must have had a thing for Catherines!
        • henry viii and elizabeth
        • Henry VIII formed the Church of England and was the first monarch to be its head, a role still carried out by reigning monarchs today. The Church of England partly came about because Henry VIII wanted to end his marriage to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. The Catholic church, headed by the Pope, refused to grant permission. So Henry VIII formed a church that would, putting himself as head of it too. Henry VIII held Catholic beliefs, but his Church of England would become Protestant.
          • Elizabeth was highly educated by numerous governesses and tutors. Alongside calligraphy and music, she also learnt languages and was fluent in English, French, Latin and Italian.
            • Henry’s final wife, Catherine Parr, took an interest in Elizabeth’s education. Under Catherine’s care
              • he sudden death of Elizabeth’s younger brother, Edward VI, in 1553, no one was quite certain who would succeed him. Both Elizabeth and her elder sister, Mary, each had supporters for their claim to the throne. After Mary, a strident Catholic, ascended to the throne in July 1553, Protestants continually rebelled.
                • Mary imprisoned Elizabeth for two months following Wyatt’s Rebellion, which sought to overthrow the queen. Elizabeth escaped execution by assuring Mary that she did not know anything about the rebellion. Mary kept her sister under house arrest for nearly a year before recalling her to court in 1555.
                  • then support turned to her Catholic cousin Mary, Queen of Scotland, Elizabeth acted to defend her position, imprisoning her rival.After keeping Mary imprisoned for 19 years, Elizabeth eventually had her cousin executed at Fotheringhay Castle on 8 February 1587.
                    • Elizabeth was raised Protestant and went on to rule as a Protestant queen,
                • The queen was true to her word and never did marry, though rumours circulated about an affair between Elizabeth and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.

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