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  • Created by: zavabia
  • Created on: 22-11-13 16:39
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    • Temperature
      • Too hot
        • Sweating
          • Water is released onto surface of skin as water requires energy to evaporate. The body adds salts so it requires more energy, therefore using more heat and losing more heat.
        • Skin goes red- blood goes to surface of skin
          • Vasodilation and vasoconstriction
            • Too hot - vasodilation - muscles in the arteries dilate allowing more blood to flow to the surface of the skin to radiate heat away
            • Too cold - vasoconstriction - the muscles near arteries contract, narrowing the arteriole and moving blood away from the skin.
        • Hairs go flat
      • Too Cold
        • Hairs become erect
          • When the body is too cold, the erector muscles contract, raising the hair and trapping air to the skin to insulate it.
        • Stop sweating
        • Shivering
        • Blood moves away form skin
    • Counter-current principle
      • This mechanism of the body allows an equilibrium is never reached. it allows the heat to diffuse through the body to keep it at a roughly constant temperature.
      • For example - on the finger tips, heat is lost to the atmosphere, so the blood coming from the hands loses some of its heat to the blood coming back into the hands.
    • Controlling glucose levels
      • If too much glucose is in the blood, the pancreas releases INSULIN.This travels in the blood to the liver, which responds by storing the glucose as GLYCOGEN.
      • If glucose levels are too low, the pancreas releases GLUCAGON that instructs the liver to break down GLYCOGEN into glucose.
    • Ultrafiltration
      • The blood is pumped at high pressure through the kidney - when it reaches the renal capsule, it is filtered under pressure.
      • When the blood is filtered it loses glucose, water, salts and minerals from the blood.
      • In the Distal Convoluted Tuble, glucose is removed by diffusion back into the blood, along with some of the water.
    • ADH
      • Anti diuretic hormone
      • When the body is dehydrated. the pituitary glands in the brain releases ADH. This opens special proteins called AQUAPORINS in the collecting ducts of the kidney. This allows more water to be reabsorbed.


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