Holderness coast

  • Created by: sana.2000
  • Created on: 05-05-19 20:00
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  • Holderness coastal erosion
    • why is erosion a problem at the Holderness coast
      • geology
        • boulder clay
          • little resistance to erosion
          • shallow sloping cliffs
          • e,g Hornsea and Mappleton
        • chalk
          • more resistant
          • landforms - headlands, cliffs, arches, stacks
          • e.g. Flamborough head
      • Fetch
        • the distance of open water over which they move
          • greater the fetch the larger the waves
          • small fetch (500-800km)
        • sea floor
          • deep sea floor. Waves reach the cliff without being weakened by friction with shallow beaches
        • swell waves
          • waves that originate from the mid-ocean which appear as larger waves amongst smaller, locally generated waves
          • waves circulate around the UK from Atlantic Ocean into the N.sea adding energy to the waves
            • powerful destructive waves
        • low-pressure weather system/winter storms
          • intense and produce string winds, waves and tides
      • longshore drift and beach material
        • boulder clay - clay particles
          • transported by suspension
        • narrow beaches
          • little friction and do not absorb wave energy
            • little deposition
        • tides flow southwards
          • longshore drifts transports sediment south
            • Hornsea is poorly protected
      • sub-aerial processes and coastal erosion
        • chemical
          • only significant at Flamborough head (chalk)
        • mechanical weathering - freeze-thaw/wetting and drying
          • significant - boulder clay
            • crumbly in dry period
          • mass movement
            • slumping
              • crack then rain percolates which becomes lubricated and much heavier. cliff can't support weight and the clay slides downslope under gravity
              • slumped material falls to base of cliff
                • Untitled
        • mass movement
          • slumping
            • crack then rain percolates which becomes lubricated and much heavier. cliff can't support weight and the clay slides downslope under gravity
            • slumped material falls to base of cliff
              • Untitled
    • key players on the Holderness coast
      • central/local government
        • environment agency are jointly responsible for coastal management
          • funding has been cut in 2010
      • stakeholders in the local economy
        • tourist industry e.g. campsites want greater spending on coastal protection
        • farmers - want money to be spend on farmland
        • insurance companies - are increasingly refusing to insure vulnerable properties
        • residents - wants guaranteed coastal protection for their homes and businesses
      • environmental stakeholders
        • RSPB want to protect spurn head
          • continue longshore drift southwards
          • protects mudflats of the Humber Estuary (protect birdlife reserves)
    • impact of coastal management
      • Untitled

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