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  • HIV / AIDS
    • HIV (human immunodeficiency syndrome)
    • AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
    • HIV positive means the HIV virus has been found in your blood by blood tests but you have no symptoms
    • The majority of infections occur in southern africa
    • HIV is transmitted by
      • Sexual contact
      • Infection of blood e.g sharing needles
      • From mother to foetus
    • How does HIV cause AIDS
      • 1) HIV attaches to the CD4 receptors of the receptors of the T helper cells and the infects them
      • 2) Once inside the host cell it takes over and replicates
      • 3) Host T killer cells then kill the infected cells by the mediated response leading to a decrease in the number of T helper cells
      • 4) This means that macrophages and T killer cells don't become activated
    • Stages of HIV
      • 1) Acute HIV syndrome first few weeks of infection mild viral symptoms e.g fevers, headaches
      • 2) asymptomatic or chronic stage symptoms disappear, this stage lasts longer in healthy people, HIV replication
      • 3) symptomatic disease viral load is so large immune system starts to fail, T helper cell count drop HIV related symptoms occur
      • 4) advanced AIDS severe symptoms and infections occur e.g. TB, cancers
    • Treatment and control
      • No current cure for HIV
      • Education on condoms and clean needles can reduce the spread of disease


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