HIV

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  • HIV
    • Retrovirus
      • Nucleic Acid = RNA
    • Invades T helper cells
      • gp120 molecules on virus surfaces bind to CD4 receptors on the surface of T helper cells
        • Viral envelope then fused with the host cell membrane
          • Viral RNA enters the cell
            • Once inside the cell, viral DNA is manufactured from viral RNA using reverse transcriptase
              • Viral DNA is integrated into host DNA using integrase
                • It can then be transcribed and translated to produce new viral proteins
      • new viruses bud out of T cell and take some of the host cell surface membrane with them as their envelope so they can't be destroyed
        • Cell killed as they leave
        • It can then be transcribed and translated to produce new viral proteins
      • Destroyed by T killer cells.
        • As number of viral cells increases, number of T helper cells decreases
          • Macrophages, B cells and T killer cells not activated
            • Don't function properly
              • Leads to immune defficiency
                • Macrophages, B cells and T killer cells not activated
                  • Don't function properly
                    • Leads to immune defficiency
      • leads to AIDS
        • Onset of AIDS
      • Acute Phase
        • Person experiences symptoms
          • Fever
          • Sweats
          • Headache
        • Rapid replication of virus and loss of T helper cells
          • Reduced by infected cells being recognised
      • Chronic Phase
        • No symptoms
        • Other diseases can reactivate
      • Disease Phase
        • Onset of AIDS
        • Decrease in number of T helper cells leaves immune system vulnerable
        • high risk of infection by opportunistic infections
          • Can lead to death

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