HIV

  • Created by: Niamh M
  • Created on: 16-05-18 10:13
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  • How it infects:
    • Protein on HIV binds to CD4 protein
      • Protein capsid fuses with cell surface membrane
        • RNA and enzymes enter helper T cell
          • Reverse transcriptase enzyme converts viral RNA to DNA
            • DNA inserted into T helper cell nucleus and is inserted into DNA
              • HIV DNA creates mRNA using cell's enzymes
                • mRNA passes out through nuclear pores
                  • Uses T helper cell mechanisms to synthesise HIV particles
                    • Particles break away from helper T cell with a piece of cell surface membrane- forming the HIV lipid envelope
    • HIV
      • Effects of HIV
        • Can lead to AIDS after the replication goes into dormancy for a few years
        • Helper T cells attacked
          • Can't stimulate the division of B cells
            • Can't make antibodies
          • Can't produce cytotoxic T cells
          • Can't produce adequate response to pathogen so the person is more susceptible to other diseases
          • Memory cells damaged
      • ELISA test
        • Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
        • Detects presence of protein in a sample
          • E.g. HIV and pathogens of disease like TB and Hep.
        • Apply sample to surface where all the antigens in the sample will attach
          • Wash surface to remove unattached antigens
            • Add antibody specific to desired antigen and allow to bind
              • Add a second antibody (with enzyme attached) that binds with the first antibody
                • Add colourless substrate of the enzyme
                  • Enzyme breaks substrate down into a coloured product
                    • Amount of antigen present is relative to the intensity of colour that develops

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