Hitler's appointment as Chancellor

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  • Hitler's rise to power
    • Von Papen
      • Nazis were the largest party in the Reichstag after the July 1932 election
      • He wanted to create a more authoritarian state
      • He ended the ban on the SA and street fighting became so bad that he had to take over the state of Prussia
        • Destroyed the federal principal and led to centralisation of the state
      • Hitler had rejected the role of Vice-Chancellor so Von Papen didn't have a majority
        • With the support of Hindenburg, Von Papen tried to dissolve the Reichstag and hold fresh elections but the opposition passed a vote of no confidence
      • Elections were called in November 1932 and the Nazis lost 2 million votes
      • May 1932 - December 1932
    • The Müller government
      • Herman Müller was the leader of the Great Coalition
      • The Great Coalition: SPD, DDP, ZP and the DVP
      • Coalition started falling apart by the end of 1929 due to the financing of the dole
        • The SPD didn't want unemployment benefits to be cut
        • DVP was arguing for reductions
      • The cabinet and chancellor resigned in March 1930
        • Gave Hindenburg the opportunity to appoint Brüning as chancellor
    • The Brüning government
      • Henrich Brüning was the leader of the Centre Party
      • Hindenburg and General Schleicher hoped that a more right-wing government would support rearmament and run Germany without the Reichstag
      • Brüning wanted to decrease the spending of the government and aimed to slow down inflation
        • Through deflationary policies, increasing taxes and decreasing welfare spending
          • These were defeated in the Reichstag
            • Hindenburg tried to use Article 48 to push the legislation through but then the Reichstag was dissolved
        • He wanted to end reparations and form a customs union with Austria but the French then decided to stop an emergency loan, causing a banking crisis
      • March 1930 - May 1932
      • Hitler was unwilling to prop up Brüning and so it was the SPD that formed a coalition to keep out Hitler
    • September 1930 elections
      • Nazis became the second largest party
      • Large electoral turnout
      • Capitalised on the ineptitude of the Weimar democracy
      • Nazis appealed across the classes
      • The SA challenged the paramilitary forces of the KPD and SPD
      • Electioneering was well organised
      • The main message was about a divided society due to the failure of democracy
    • Von Schleicher
      • The army didn't want to support Von Papen so the government was dismissed
      • Kurt von Schleicher approached some Nazis to join his government but Hitler blocked it
      • He also tried to get the support of the SPD and trade unions which worried industrialists
      • After Hindenburg withdrew his support, von Schleicher resigned on the 28th January
      • December 1932 - January 1933


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