History: three cold war crisis

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  • History: Three cold war crisis
    • Berlin
      • knrushchev wanted the west to withdraw its forces from West Berlin.
      • High standard of living enjoyed by people of West Berlin contrasted with the poor living conditions in east Berlin
      • 3 million people had crossed from east to west Berlin between 1960. Many were skilled workers.
      • Berlin wall 1961
        • 1961, East Germans began to build a wall surrounding west berlin
        • First the structure was a barbed wire but but was soon replaced by a stone wall(17th august)
        • All movement between East and West Berlin was stopped
        • Effects of Berlin wall
          • Flow of refugees was reduced
          • western nations won propaganda victory because communist states needed to build walls to prevent their citizens from leaving
        • kennedy's response
          • Berlin wall became a symbol of division between the capitalist(east) and communist(west)
          • Kennedy visited west Berlin in 1963 and declared that the city was a symbol ofthe struggle of the communist world
    • Cuba
      • Cuban missile crisis 1962
        • Crisis lasted for 13 days 16th -28th october
        • (most seirous conflict in cold war)height of cold war tension, really close to nuclear conflict
          • became communist country when Fidel Castro took-over 1958
            • Castro gave land back to Cuban people Americans cut off aid to Cuba and reused to buy cotton and tobacco.So Castro secured help from USSR.
              • Khrushchev wanted to gain influence in Cuba especially as its close to the USA . Kennedy saw it as communist threat at US doorstep. He gave support to an ivasion in cuba by rebels opposed to Castro's government. Landings were at bay of pigs and was a disaster, no popular support for it in Cuba.
        • Results of crisis
          • Leaders of both USSR and USA realised that nuclear war could've been a possibility and it was vital that a similar crisis shouldn't happen.
          • Americans and soviets set up a telephone link(hot line)so that direct communication could take place in future between Moscow and Washington.
          • 1963 test ban treaty signed between USA, USSR and Britain
          • overall--Arms reduction and improved communications
        • Remember what happened in thirteen days-- Khrushchev wanted to build missile site in Cuba, Kennedy build a blockade around Cuba stopping soviet missiles and equipment reaching Cuba
      • 144 kilometers off the coast of Usa
    • Czechoslovakia:Prague spring 1968
      • Soviet reaction
        • USSR leader Brezhnev saw it as a threatas similar actions had happened in Hungary
          • 1968 Warsaw pact troops invaded, arresting leading reformers, seized key towns and cities.
          • Dubcek and czech president flew to Moscow and talked to Brezhnev.
      • 1967 Dubcek became Communist Party secretary he began to reform the communist ways:
        • REFORMS: Censorship of press ended..Other political parties were allowed.. Czech citizens given greater freedom to travel abroad.
      • America didn't intervene because they didn't want Brezhnev to intervene with war with Vietnam. Other western European countries followed.
      • Brezhnev Doctrine
        • He sated that force would be used when necessary to keep soviet satellite states firmly under soviet influence.
        • Doctrine vand soviet actions in Czechoslovakia did not improve realtions between USSR and USA
  • Brezhnev Doctrine
    • He sated that force would be used when necessary to keep soviet satellite states firmly under soviet influence.
    • Doctrine vand soviet actions in Czechoslovakia did not improve realtions between USSR and USA

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