History USA- 1865

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  • 1865
    • 13th amendment abolished slavery
      • This ended slavery throughout the United States
      • P- Amendments from 1865-70 gave rights of citizenship to ex-slaves but equality was far off.
        • This ended slavery throughout the United States
      • President- Abraham Lincoln: 'The great emancipator'
        • The  Emancipation Proclamation- 1862; Declared slaves in the confederate states were free; but allowed union slave-owning states.
      • Impact- enabled a mass migration for A.A's from rural plantations to cities. and then from S-N.
    • Reconstruction confederate style.
      • Definition-  Reconstruction: The process of re-building and reforming the 11 ex-confederate states and restoring them to the Union. (Union of the united states).
      • P- Lincoln assinated. sucessor- Andrew Johnson- left to deal with defeated S states.
        • S/P/E- S states with: ruined economies, changed societies (free blacks) old political system obselete: had to be put back in Union.
          • The years of introducing and managing these changes called- 'The age of RECONSTRUCTION'. (1865-77)
            • S- Many Southern blacks wanted equality in 1865.
              • S/P- However, Johnson more interested in pacifying elite whites in S and helping them accpet the end of slavery- and reject the confedndaracy then they would be able to join the Union.
                • P- The ex-confederate states introduced 'BLACK CODES'.
                  • S/P/E- These codes ensured that blacks did not gain, social, economic, political or legal equality.
                    • This was RECONSTRUCTION CONFEDERATE STYLE.
      • BLACK CODES-
        • E- Economic inequality: blacks were not allowed to buy or rent land.
        • S-Social inequality: blacks were banned from schools.
        • P- Political inequality: blacks were not allowed to vote.
        • P- Legal inequality: of the roughly 500 men indicted by Texas courts for murdering blacks in 1865-6 not one was convicted.
        • Eventually these turned into 'Jim Crow Laws'.
      • Congress
        • S/P- Met in Dec 1865, Maj of Republican congress refused to recognize the new state governments in the S. As congressman were old Confederacy generals ect.
        • 'Freedmen Bureau' set up by Congress to help ex-slaves, esp through education.
          • Made education more widely available for blacks. A few black political leaders, businessmen, teachers, lawyers and doctors emerged.
      • President - Andrew Johnson.
    • S- Differing attitudes towards slavery: Common miconception- assumption N went to war 1961-65 to stop slavery.
      • S- But, despite S + N hostility towards the emancipation proclamation..
        • P- The eradication of slavery was achieved when conflict came to an end.
  • This was RECONSTRUCTION CONFEDERATE STYLE.
  • S- Differing attitudes towards slavery: Common miconception- assumption N went to war 1961-65 to stop slavery.
    • S- But, despite S + N hostility towards the emancipation proclamation..
      • P- The eradication of slavery was achieved when conflict came to an end.
  • S- The attitude of President Lincoln is crucial to this ^^- because...
    • M- Majority of the northern army was made up of A.A's at end of Civil war.
      • S- Thus his attitude towards slavery hardened. Despite personal beliefs that Whites were superior to blacks; agreed with abolitionists and said slavery contravened  America's declaration of independence.
  • P-  He  did this largely to dissuade Britain from shipping out more arms to the South.
    • S- Thus his attitude towards slavery hardened. Despite personal beliefs that Whites were superior to blacks; agreed with abolitionists and said slavery contravened  America's declaration of independence.

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