cold war revision

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  • History - International Relations  1943-91
    • Conferences
      • Tehran 1943, TR WC JS - designed to make plans the reconstruction of Europe. no agreements were made.
      • Yalta 1945, TR WS JS - 4 zones occupied by 1 of allies, Fr accepted, berlin divided, boundaries of Poland altered
      • Potsdam 1946, HT WC JS - german gov decisions made together, Nazi dissolved, G to pay reparations and allies to join UN.
    • 1946-48
      • The Long Telegram 1946 Stain had given a speech calling for the destruction of capitalism. The USSR were building up its military.
      • Novikov's Telegram 1946 US desired to dominate the world and didn't want to be allies with US (post TR death).
      • The Iron Curtain 1946a 1600km ion fence cutting off communist countries from the non communist west.
      • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan 1947 - offered help to any gov being threatened. stalin set up COMINFORM to counteract T
      • Belin Blockade 1948 blocked roads so that the allies could not get their supplies into berlin. T flew them in instead. in 1949, the blockade was lifted.
    • The Berlin Wall
      • Khrushchev: peaceful co-existence. East berlin = riots due to unfair treatment. over 2mil defected to west berlin.
      • 13 August 1961 - border of barbed wire and machine guns erected. tre dayslater work started on building a 45km concrete wall to replace wire. the gap between west and east was filled.
      • 1st year of erection, 41 were shot for trying to cross the border. It separated both family and friends.
      • 1963, Kennedy visited west berlin. he said "i am a Berliner" in german. They used it as propaganda that they would never leave berlin. this angered communists who thought it was a deliberate attept to cause trouble
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis - 1962
      • The Bay of Pigs 1961 -  april 7, 1500 of castros opponents landed at Cochinos Bay and  told that the CIA would join them. They did not.  were poorly trained and outnumbered 1:300. Castro saw the usa as a threat and asked the USSR for help.
      • September, USSR told k that it was supplying arms only for defence. They had lied. a U-2 spy plane gathered evidence which showed rocket launching sites being built on the island.
      • 5 options which kennedy had: do nothing, remove from Turkey, blockade cuba, launch an air attack on sites, invade. He  made a secret deal to remove missiles from Europe in exchange or cuba. in 1962, cuba missiles were dismantld
      • In 1963a hotline was set up to talk at shot notice and a test ban treaty was signed which said there was to be no nuclear testing in the atmosphere
    • Czechoslovakia 1968
      • They wanted to leave the influence of the USSR. however, in Jan, a new man was chosen to be in power for communists in Czech - Dubcek.
      • He wanted: freedom of speech+ religion, no political prisoners, trade unions, limits to power of police, no press censorship and a new national assembly which would be elected.
      • Prague Spring july, ussr+4 warsaw pact countries sent message to him asking to change policies. he didn't. late july, 75000 troops were outside cz. 20-21 aug, they entered. some fought back. D arrested and made to sign reforms. he didn't, he was kicked out. Ap 1969 Gustav Husak took over
    • SALT I + II
      • 1 LN RN 1969 May 26 - Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty, or ABM, and the Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
      • 1972-june 1979 B+JC, SALT II set more specific regulations on different missiles.  Limits set on no. of strategic launchers,  various types of missiles.  Each limited to 2400 weapons systems.end of detete when carter withdraws and boycotted Moscow Olympics.
    • Afghanistan
      • War became unpopular. Withdraw when Gorb comes into power in 1985. Agreed in Geneva  1988. last troops left in Feb 1989. over 20000 soviet troops died in 10y of war. It was reported properly due to Gorb.
      • Christmas day 1979- soviets invade afg. Armin executed by KGB and brez announces that soviet union were helping due to request. New gov set up led by Karmal. muslim nations owned by Russia turn hostile.
    • End of Detente
      • post Afg, Carter doctrine fromed: formed alliance wit china (opposed to ussr) an stopped trade and ended diplomatic relations. 1980 Moscow boycott retaliated with 1984 LA boycott. By 1940, détente was ove.
    • Evil empire
      • march 1983, Reagan gave his evil empire speech: it was the usa's duty to protect us from the ussr and the cold war was a moral war between right and wrong. The US wuld invest in nuclear weapons to defend liberty.
    • SDI
      • a nuclear umbrella which would stop ussr bombs. (lasers in space). This broke the outer space treaty 1967 and upset ssr as they did not have the money or tech to compete. they couldn't compete in the arms race.
    • Gorbechev
      • came to power in 1985. introduced new soviet policies: glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). He also wanted to abandon bezhnev doctrine by loosening control over satellite states.
    • The End
      • although G was disliked in Russia due to his un-communist ways, he helped get the ussr out of depression and ended the cold war - tus ending the soviet union due to the collapse of its sphere of influence

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