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  • History - Russia (1917-1939) Background Information
    • The weaknesses of Tsar Nicholas II
      • Autocratic - one person in charge (dictatorship)
        • No one but the Tsar could make decisions on how Russia was run.
      • Divine Right - Believes they are chosen by God to rule.
        • Due to this, everyone had to obey or they would be going against God and would 'burn in hell'.
      • Okarana - Russian Secret Police
        • They could go undercover to find out who the main leaders were who wanted to overthrow the Tsar during the October Manifesto.
      • He wasn't confident as a ruler.
      • Tsar felt safer after the October Manifesto.
        • This was because he dismissed the Duma as leaders tried to overthrow him.
          • The Duma was a limited form of national parliament set up in Russia at the Turn of the 20th Century.
    • The Impact of the Great War on Russia
      • August 1914 - The Russians go to war with Britain and France against Germany and Austria-Hungary. The outbreak of war was greeted with enthusiasm and increased patriotism. The Russian army mobilised quickly which meant that the Germans had to repost 100,000 men to the eastern front which hampered the German war plan.
        • Russian Citizens were confident and united at the outbreak of the war.
        • August and September 1914 - 26 to 29th August: The Battle of Tannenberg Lake. The Russians suffer a crushing defeat with 70,000 soldiers killed, 50,000 taken as prisoners of War. 5th to 9th September 1914: Battle of Masurian Lakes. Russia's second army defeated with 100,000 men killed or wounded
          • Russian civilians effected by the deaths may have second thoughts about the leadership.
          • May 1915 - An Astro-German offensive forces Russians to retreat over 480km. Only the extreme weather prevented further advances and Russia's defeat.
            • The Russian army were lucky that they had the extreme Russian weather that saved them.
            • September 1915 - the Tsar decided to move to the front and take over the command of the war. Alexandra the Tsarina was left running the country. She refused to take advice from the middle class members of the Duma
              • The Tsar is worried about the war leadership so decides to leave his inexperienced German wife to run the country.
              • Early 1916 - Alexandra was only prepared to listen to Rasputin. He seemed to be in charge of the government. There were so many changes of ministers, nobody was organising food, fuel and other supplies to the cities properly.
                • As Rasputin was influencing Alexandra, this undermined the Royal Family.
                  • Rasputin was an unorthadox monk from Siberia. He was discovered by the Royal Family when their only son (Tsarevitch Alexis) enjured a blood disease - haemophilia. Alexandra had faith that Rasputin could contol her son's disease as it was heard he could perform great miricles and feats.
                • August 1916 - the local govenor of the village of Grushevka reported the war had killed 13% of the populaton of the village. This left many widows and orphans needing a state pension that they did not receive.
                  • People are starting to have low morale and need help to survive due to soldiers dying but do not receive any which forms huge dobts on Russia's government (Tsar and Tsarina)
                  • October 1916 - a Police Report on army morale, "The behaviour of the soldiers, especially in units of the rear, is most provocative. They accuse the military authorises of corruption, cowardice and drunkenness, and even treason. Everywhere one meets thousands of deserters, carrying out crimes and offering violence to the civilian population."
                    • Corruption and very low morale are apparent with soldiers giving up and not having faith in the Tsar.
                    • December 1916 - Petrograd experienced the worst winter in living memory with temperatures below 30 minus degrees centigrade at the same time there were severe food and fuel shortages. Desertions of soldiers at the front and on their way to the front were now commonplace. Rasputin is murdered by Prince Yusopov and a group of leading aristocrats.
                      • The economic and climate situation are at an extreme low with soldiers leaving due to this. Also with Rasputin helping to run the country strikes envy and the eventual murder of him.
      • August and September 1914 - 26 to 29th August: The Battle of Tannenberg Lake. The Russians suffer a crushing defeat with 70,000 soldiers killed, 50,000 taken as prisoners of War. 5th to 9th September 1914: Battle of Masurian Lakes. Russia's second army defeated with 100,000 men killed or wounded
        • Russian civilians effected by the deaths may have second thoughts about the leadership.
        • May 1915 - An Astro-German offensive forces Russians to retreat over 480km. Only the extreme weather prevented further advances and Russia's defeat.
          • The Russian army were lucky that they had the extreme Russian weather that saved them.
          • September 1915 - the Tsar decided to move to the front and take over the command of the war. Alexandra the Tsarina was left running the country. She refused to take advice from the middle class members of the Duma
            • The Tsar is worried about the war leadership so decides to leave his inexperienced German wife to run the country.
            • Early 1916 - Alexandra was only prepared to listen to Rasputin. He seemed to be in charge of the government. There were so many changes of ministers, nobody was organising food, fuel and other supplies to the cities properly.
              • As Rasputin was influencing Alexandra, this undermined the Royal Family.
                • Rasputin was an unorthadox monk from Siberia. He was discovered by the Royal Family when their only son (Tsarevitch Alexis) enjured a blood disease - haemophilia. Alexandra had faith that Rasputin could contol her son's disease as it was heard he could perform great miricles and feats.
              • August 1916 - the local govenor of the village of Grushevka reported the war had killed 13% of the populaton of the village. This left many widows and orphans needing a state pension that they did not receive.
                • People are starting to have low morale and need help to survive due to soldiers dying but do not receive any which forms huge dobts on Russia's government (Tsar and Tsarina)
                • October 1916 - a Police Report on army morale, "The behaviour of the soldiers, especially in units of the rear, is most provocative. They accuse the military authorises of corruption, cowardice and drunkenness, and even treason. Everywhere one meets thousands of deserters, carrying out crimes and offering violence to the civilian population."
                  • Corruption and very low morale are apparent with soldiers giving up and not having faith in the Tsar.
                  • December 1916 - Petrograd experienced the worst winter in living memory with temperatures below 30 minus degrees centigrade at the same time there were severe food and fuel shortages. Desertions of soldiers at the front and on their way to the front were now commonplace. Rasputin is murdered by Prince Yusopov and a group of leading aristocrats.
                    • The economic and climate situation are at an extreme low with soldiers leaving due to this. Also with Rasputin helping to run the country strikes envy and the eventual murder of him.
      • Late 1916 - the Council of the United Nobility that represented the aristocracy was calling for the Tsar to step down.
        • The situation is awful with even the Tsar's supporters (aristocracy) not having faith and wanting him to step down.
      • January 1917 - Strikes broke out all over Russia which by February had spread and were even being joined by the army. Inflation had increased dramatically. Prices had risen several times since 1913.
        • The Russian people decide somethimg needs to be done and strike - this sends a strong message to the Tsar which he ignores. Due to the demand of food,  the price rises dramatically.
        • Late 1916 - the Council of the United Nobility that represented the aristocracy was calling for the Tsar to step down.
          • The situation is awful with even the Tsar's supporters (aristocracy) not having faith and wanting him to step down.
        • 7th - 10th March 1917 - the number of strikes rose to 250,000. Industry came to a standstill.
          • People united to try and cause mayhem to hopefully forse the Tsar to abdicate.
          • 12th March 1917 - The Tsar orders his army to put down the revolt.
            • The Tsar still wants power so sends the remaining army to resolve the start of the revolution. This infact causes widespread revolt.
            • 15th March 1917 - The Tsar abdicates. Russia has finished with the Tsars.
              • The Tsar loses complete control and is forced to abdicate.
      • 7th - 10th March 1917 - the number of strikes rose to 250,000. Industry came to a standstill.
        • People united to try and cause mayhem to hopefully forse the Tsar to abdicate.
        • 12th March 1917 - The Tsar orders his army to put down the revolt.
          • The Tsar still wants power so sends the remaining army to resolve the start of the revolution. This infact causes widespread revolt.
          • 15th March 1917 - The Tsar abdicates. Russia has finished with the Tsars.
            • The Tsar loses complete control and is forced to abdicate.

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