History of Medicine

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  • History of Medicine
    • Trinity surgery
      • In the 18th and 19th centuries
        • Blood loss
          • James Blundell developed blood transfusions when working with women during child birth, they would often die from blood loss
            • Noticed there were some issues with his transfusions - blood often clotted in tubes, stopping flow and blood couldn't be stored so had to come from a donor sat next to patient and didn't know about different blood types so transfusions could kill patients
          • 1902,, Karl Landsteiner discovered 4 blood groups, O, A, B, AB. His findings showed they could not be mixed or there would be fatal consequences
        • Pain
          • 1847 - chloroform by James Simpson, complete knockout, dose variable but worked fast
          • ether by William clark, made sure patient didn't feel pain but they often threw up because of it
          • Nitrous oxide by Beddoes and Davy in 1795. patient relaxed but still awake. Horace Wells used it to remove his own teeth. Patients couldn't control reactions
          • John Snow developed chloroform inhaler, gave measured doses, one of the first to use it was Queen Elizabeth
        • Infection
          • Joseph Lister found Carbolic acid killed most germs, cut death rates from 46% to 15%, sprayed instruments with a solution of carbolic acid. However it slightly burns skin leaving scars
          • 1847 Ignaz Semmelweiss cut death rate in maturity as he made doctors wash hands in calcium chloride solution before treatments
          • 1890 Surgeons boiled instruments to sterilise them, used rubber gloves when operating and Germans started using face masks
    • Germ Theory
      • Louis Pasteur
        • First man to establish the link between germs and disease
        • developed different vaccines for different diseases
      • Robert Koch
        • trained students in his methods
        • discovered what caused diphtheria, typhoid, pneumonia, plague, tetanus, whooping cough
        • developed technique of growing microbes for experiments and that certain dyes made them stand out
        • photographed microbes
      • Paul Ehrlich
        • Salvarsan 606. 606th attempt at a cure for syphilis
          • magic bullet because, unlike mercury, it didn't cause damage to the human body


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