HISTORY

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  • HISTORY
    • LIFE IN GERMANY
      • THE FORMATION OF THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC
        • KEY WORDS
          • Weimar Republic- The name given to Germany after the end of WW1
            • Abdication- The standing down of a monarch
              • Armistice- Cease fire
                • Kaiser- Empreor
                  • Reichstag- Parliemnt
        • The Strengths and Weakness of the Weimar Republic
          • KEY WORDS
            • Constitution- A set of laws that governs how the country is run.
              • Judiciary- Judges
                • Coalition- A government made by 20 or more political parties
        • How did the Weimar Republic run?
          • The President
            • Elected every 7 years
              • Appoints the Chancellor
                • Article 48 of the Weimar constitution said that in an emergency the President could make laws 'by decree' without going through the Reichstag
                  • He could react quickly in an incident.
                    • He could make laws that the people do not like?
          • The Chancellor
            • Equivalent of the British Prime Minister had to have support of the majority on the Reichstag.
          • The Reichstag
            • Equivalent of the British House of commons had power to pass or reject changes to the law. Elected by proportional represantation
          • The German People
            • All adults [including women] over the age of 20 could vote the President and the Reichstag
              • Had equal rights e.g freedom of speech, freedom of religious beliefs.
          • What is Proportional Representation?
            • Proportional Representation- A voting system where the number of seats that you get in the Parliament [Reichstag] is directly proportional to the percentage of votes that you get
              • E.g.- If you get 10% of the vote, you get 10% of the seats in the Reichstag
            • Strengths
              • More political parties which can better represent people's views.
                • Fairer because it is more democratic. The Reichstag reflects Public views.
              • Weakness
                • Coalitions will need to be formed to make decisions.These could be unstable due to disagreements
                  • More extreme parties got into power
            • Part of the Constitution
              • President
                • He was the head of state
                  • Pro
                    • He was directly elected every 7 years. He was given strong powers to keep control over the government and protect Germany.
                    • Con
                      • He had potentially too much power. If he didnt believe in democracy he could ignore the Reichstag and rule like a dictator using the emergency powers.
              • Article 48
                • This have the president to 'rule by decree' to pass laws without the approval of the Reichstag [Parliament]
                  • Pro
                    • Because the President had the opportunity to rule by decree in an emergency, laws could be passed much more quickly. This could be an advantage as they could act quickly and decisvely
                    • Con
                      • This have the President power to abandon democracy and might make people more willing to accept a dictator
              • Chancellor
                • He was the head of the goverment
                  • Pro
                    • He needed the support of the Reichstag so reflected the democratic wishes of the people
                    • Con
                      • He was appointed by the president so an unpopular chancellor who's lost Reichstag support might use the 'rule by decree' to get laws passed if the President agreed.
              • Proportional Representation
                • The voting system meant that a political party received the same percentage of seats in the Reichstag as the percentage of votes won in the election.
                  • Pro
                    • This was very, fair highly democratic, and meant everybody's views were represented in the Reichstag.
                    • Con
                      • It encouraged lots parties to form, which meant that no one party alone win a majority of seats in the Reichstag and form a governement
              • This is when several parties join together to form a government
                • Pro
                  • Small parties could have some say in the running of the government and parties had to negotiate and compromise with each other
                  • Con
                    • They found it very hard to reach agreements si it was very hard to make new laws. This was particularly bad at a time of crisis
                • Coalition
              • Courts and Army
                • The generals and the judges were the same men as had held the positions in Kaiser Wilhelm 11's time
                • Pro
                  • They were experienced
                  • Con
                    • Many of them did not support the Weimar Republic . They were often sympathetic to right wing groups such as the Freikorps and the Nazis
          • HISTORY
            • LIFE IN GERMANY
              • THE FORMATION OF THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC
                • KEY WORDS
                  • Weimar Republic- The name given to Germany after the end of WW1
                    • Abdication- The standing down of a monarch
                      • Armistice- Cease fire
                        • Kaiser- Empreor
                          • Reichstag- Parliemnt
                • The Strengths and Weakness of the Weimar Republic
                  • KEY WORDS
                    • Constitution- A set of laws that governs how the country is run.
                      • Judiciary- Judges
                        • Coalition- A government made by 20 or more political parties
                • How did the Weimar Republic run?
                  • The President
                    • Elected every 7 years
                      • Appoints the Chancellor
                        • Article 48 of the Weimar constitution said that in an emergency the President could make laws 'by decree' without going through the Reichstag
                          • He could react quickly in an incident.
                            • He could make laws that the people do not like?
                  • The Chancellor
                    • Equivalent of the British Prime Minister had to have support of the majority on the Reichstag.
                  • The Reichstag
                    • Equivalent of the British House of commons had power to pass or reject changes to the law. Elected by proportional represantation
                  • The German People
                    • All adults [including women] over the age of 20 could vote the President and the Reichstag
                      • Had equal rights e.g freedom of speech, freedom of religious beliefs.
                  • What is Proportional Representation?
                    • Proportional Representation- A voting system where the number of seats that you get in the Parliament [Reichstag] is directly proportional to the percentage of votes that you get
                      • E.g.- If you get 10% of the vote, you get 10% of the seats in the Reichstag
                    • Strengths
                      • More political parties which can better represent people's views.
                        • Fairer because it is more democratic. The Reichstag reflects Public views.
                      • Weakness
                        • Coalitions will need to be formed to make decisions.These could be unstable due to disagreements
                          • More extreme parties got into power
                    • Part of the Constitution
                      • President
                        • He was the head of state
                          • Pro
                            • He was directly elected every 7 years. He was given strong powers to keep control over the government and protect Germany.
                            • Con
                              • He had potentially too much power. If he didnt believe in democracy he could ignore the Reichstag and rule like a dictator using the emergency powers.
                      • Article 48
                        • This have the president to 'rule by decree' to pass laws without the approval of the Reichstag [Parliament]
                          • Pro
                            • Because the President had the opportunity to rule by decree in an emergency, laws could be passed much more quickly. This could be an advantage as they could act quickly and decisvely
                            • Con
                              • This have the President power to abandon democracy and might make people more willing to accept a dictator
                      • Chancellor
                        • He was the head of the goverment
                          • Pro
                            • He needed the support of the Reichstag so reflected the democratic wishes of the people
                            • Con
                              • He was appointed by the president so an unpopular chancellor who's lost Reichstag support might use the 'rule by decree' to get laws passed if the President agreed.
                      • Proportional Representation
                        • The voting system meant that a political party received the same percentage of seats in the Reichstag as the percentage of votes won in the election.
                          • Pro
                            • This was very, fair highly democratic, and meant everybody's views were represented in the Reichstag.
                            • Con
                              • It encouraged lots parties to form, which meant that no one party alone win a majority of seats in the Reichstag and form a governement
                      • This is when several parties join together to form a government
                        • Pro
                          • Small parties could have some say in the running of the government and parties had to negotiate and compromise with each other
                          • Con
                            • They found it very hard to reach agreements si it was very hard to make new laws. This was particularly bad at a time of crisis
                        • Coalition
                      • Courts and Army
                        • The generals and the judges were the same men as had held the positions in Kaiser Wilhelm 11's time
                        • Pro
                          • They were experienced
                          • Con
                            • Many of them did not support the Weimar Republic . They were often sympathetic to right wing groups such as the Freikorps and the Nazis
              • Why was there a revolution in Germany in November 1918?
                • By November 1918, the German armies were in retreat.
                  • The war had brought great hardship to Germans. They were food shortages and a serious flu epidemic killed many people
                    • The revolution started in the Naval part of Kiel when German Sailors refused to fight the British Navy. Instead they marched to Berlin and demanded the abdication of Kaiser. Wilhelm II who they blamed for Germany's defeat.
                      • On the 9th November, the Kaiser abdicated and went to live in exile in Holland. The following day a new Republic was set up. Friedrech Ebert of the Socialist Democratic Party became President and on the 11th of November, the new government signed an armistice to end WW1.
            • The Treaty of Versailes
              • THE BIG 3
                • George Clemenceau
                  • His country suffered most during the war
                    • He wanted to punish Germany harshly
                • Woodrow Wilson
                  • He suffered the least during the war
                    • He wanted to ensure that Germany did not suffer too much as he wanted it to recover
                      • He took to the conference his '14 points' which he wanted the treaty to be based on
                • David Lloyd George
                  • Wanted Germany to pay for what it had done, but it did not want the terms of the Treaty to be too harsh.
                    • He was concerned with Germany growing economically strong again so that it could be a good trading partner
              • TRAWL
                • Territory
                  • Alsace and Lorraine were lost to France
                    • Eupen and Malmedy were lost Belgium
                      • The German part of Danzig was declared an international city and it came under the League of Nations
                        • All together Germany lost 13.1 of its European territory and almost 50% of its iron and 15% of its coal reserves
                          • Germany lost all of its overseas colonies [their empire]. They were run by the victorious powers on behalf of the League of Nations
                • Reparations
                  • Germany was made to pay reparations as compensation for the damages caused by the war. in 1921 the total sum was fixed £6,600 million [£6.6 billion]
                • Army
                  • The Navy was reduced to only 6 battleships and the army was reduced to 100,000 soldiers.
                    • Germany was not allowed an airforce and the existing air force had to be destroyed.
                      • The Rhineland [an area on the border of Germany and France] was demilitarised. This means no troops were allowed to defend it. Alias troops were allowed to enter this area.
                • War Guilt
                  • Article 231 of the Treaty was known as the ' War Guilt Cause'. By signing the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was forced to take full blame and responsibility for starting the war.
                • League of Nations
                  • The League of Nations was set up. This was an international organization designed to ensure future peace and collective security. Germany was NOT allowed to join!
            • Opposition to the Weimar  Republic
              • Freikorps- Right wing ex-soldiers who hated communsism
                • Spartacists- Communist [left wing] who wanted a revolution
                  • Putsch- Attempt to overthrow the government
                    • General Strike- A strike involving neares all industries
              • The Political Spectrum
                • Spartacists
                  • Left Wing
                    • In Weimar Germany:
                      • Wanted revolution like Russia 1917
                        • Believed the Weimar Republic didn't give enough power to workers
                          • Wanted government by councils of workers and soldiers
                            • Wanted to abolish power of the card-owning classes and the army
                  • They were inspired by a famous gladiator named Spartacus
                    • What did they do on the 5th of January?
                      • On the fifth Janurary they seized the headquarters of the goverment newspaper and telegraph Bureay and tried to organise a general strike
                        • What did the takeover fail?
                          • The take over failed as on the 15th of January the Spartacists were crushed
                            • What happened to their leaders
                              • The leaders were arrested and when were being transported to prison they got shot by 2 members of the Freikorps
                                • Why is the Spartacist revolt significant?
                                  • The Spartacist revolt were significant for their uprising highlighted the instability of the Weimar Republic. A socialist, left wing government had been attacked by an even more left wing group
                • Kapp Putsch
                  • In Weimar Germany:
                    • Resented how the Weimar Republic's social democrat politicians abandoned the army 1918
                      • Feared communists would do to their prosperity and values
                        • Wanted to reverse Treaty of Versailles, resistance Kaiser and boost army.
                          • Had support from military, judiciary and civil service.
                  • Why did the Freikorps hate the Treaty of Versailles
                    • When the Treaty came into effect on 1st of January 1920 the government began to reduce the size of the army 100,000. This cut included disbanding the Freikorps
                      • Who was their leader in the Putsch?
                        • Their leader was Dr Wolfgang Kapp
                          • What did they do in the Putsch
                            • They called upon trade unions of Berlin to organise a general strike
                              • Although the army refused to move against Kapp and the Freikorps, what stopped the Putsch from being successful?
                                • Kapp found he could not rule Germany so he abandoned his place and fled to Sweden meaning the Putsch no longer had a leader
                                  • What did the Kapp Putsch show about the Weimar Republic?
                                    • The Kapp Putsch showed that the Republic had gained much support from the workers of Berlin. On the other hand, it reared the lack of support from the army who sympathised with the aims of the Putsch.
            • The Invasion of the Ruhr and Hyperinflation
              • KEYWORDS
                • Hyperinflation- When prices go up very quickly
                  • Passive Resistance- To resist authority in a peaceful, non-violent way.
                    • The Ruhr- The Industrial part of Germany that produced coal, iron and steel.
              • 1923
                • Germany could no longer repay the reparation repayments
              • The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919. Despite suffering 4 years of war Germany was forced to pay huge reparations [£6,600 million] and suffered territorial losses to the allies. This made reparations harder
                • Consequently, by the end of 1922 Germany couldn't afford to pay. They defaulted on their payment and requested an extension on payments.
                  • The French refused their request and invaded the Ruhr [an industrial part of Germany which produced Iron] in order to "extract" payments through raw materials and resources
                    • Germans in the area went on strike and refused to work in order to stop the French getting these resources. This was called "Passive Resistance"
                      • This meant that Germany had even less money as they were no longer making money in this area. In addition, the German government were still paying the workers even though they were on strike.
                        • Consequently, this put an enormous amount of pressure on the German economy, and in particular, on the German currency
              • What were the effects of the of Invasion
                  • It actually UNITED the German people against the FRENCH [invaders], with the strikers being seen as heroes
                    • The popularity of the Weimar Government temporarily increased because it had supported the Strikes who organised Passive Resistance
                  • It had a disastrous effect on the ECONOMY:
                    • The government was forced to print more money.
                      • The strike meant that fewer goods were produced [this made inflation even worse!]
            • 1919-1923
              • The Early Years: The Weimar Republic
                • Kapp Putsch
                  • Similarities
                    • Wanted to overthrow the Weimar Republic
                      • They both did a general strike
                        • They both used the Freikorps
                    • Wanted to overthrow the Weimar Republic
                      • They Both did a general strike
                        • They both used Freikorps
                    • Differences
                      • They are left wing
                        • Spartacists  failed the General Strike
                          • They got arrested
                      • They are right wing
                        • They did didn't fail as much
                          • They didn't get arrested
            • Hyperinflation
              • Effects of Hyperinflation
                • The Rich- They usually had land and possessions and were protected from the worst effects of hyperinflation
                  • The Middle Class- Many lost faith in the Weimar Republic and were convinced that it was unable to deal with serious economic problems
                    • The Workers- Those in employment were generally secure because wages went higher. However, wage rises always lagged behind price rises
                      • Farmers- Farmers benefited from rise in prices of food at a time when the farming industry was not doing well
                        • Fixed Incomes- People on fixed incomes, such as pensions, found that they became worthless
                          • Business Man
                            • Many businessmen who had borrowed money from the banks were able to wipe out their debts. Others were able to take over smaller businesses that were going bankrupt
              • Bankruptcy- By 1923 Germany could no longer pay France the reparations
                • Germany asked for reductions but France needed money to pay War Debts to USA
              • Occupation of the Ruhr
                • In retaliation the French sent troops into the German Industrial area of the Ruhr
                  • Confiscated Raw Materials such as manufactured goods
                    • German government urged Passive Resistance
                      • French replied by arresting those who obstructed them. They brought their own workers
                        • Germany had reduced their army
                          • German Army 100,000 men
                          • French Army 750,00 men
              • Inflation
                • Price of things went up
                  • Government needed more money to pay debts
                    • Government received less from taxes as factories were failing
                      • 1919-1923
                        • Government income was only a 1/4 of what they required
                          • Government printed MORE Money
                            • Government had 300 paper mills and 2000 printing shops just to print more money
                              • Made it easier for the government to pay reparations
                                • However made inflation worse
                                  • A loaf of bread coast 1 mark in 1919 in 1922 it cost 22 marks by 1923 it cost 100,000 million marks
                                    • Everyone suffered from shortages
                                      • Everyone found it difficult to buy what they needed
                                        • People with Savings suffered the most
      • Why was there a revolution in Germany in November 1918?
        • By November 1918, the German armies were in retreat.
          • The war had brought great hardship to Germans. They were food shortages and a serious flu epidemic killed many people
            • The revolution started in the Naval part of Kiel when German Sailors refused to fight the British Navy. Instead they marched to Berlin and demanded the abdication of Kaiser. Wilhelm II who they blamed for Germany's defeat.
              • On the 9th November, the Kaiser abdicated and went to live in exile in Holland. The following day a new Republic was set up. Friedrech Ebert of the Socialist Democratic Party became President and on the 11th of November, the new government signed an armistice to end WW1.
    • The Treaty of Versailes
      • THE BIG 3
        • George Clemenceau
          • His country suffered most during the war
            • He wanted to punish Germany harshly
        • Woodrow Wilson
          • He suffered the least during the war
            • He wanted to ensure that Germany did not suffer too much as he wanted it to recover
              • He took to the conference his '14 points' which he wanted the treaty to be based on
        • David Lloyd George
          • Wanted Germany to pay for what it had done, but it did not want the terms of the Treaty to be too harsh.
            • He was concerned with Germany growing economically strong again so that it could be a good trading partner
      • TRAWL
        • Territory
          • Alsace and Lorraine were lost to France
            • Eupen and Malmedy were lost Belgium
              • The German part of Danzig was declared an international city and it came under the League of Nations
                • All together Germany lost 13.1 of its European territory and almost 50% of its iron and 15% of its coal reserves
                  • Germany lost all of its overseas colonies [their empire]. They were run by the victorious powers on behalf of the League of Nations
        • Reparations
          • Germany was made to pay reparations as compensation for the damages caused by the war. in 1921 the total sum was fixed £6,600 million [£6.6 billion]
        • Army
          • The Navy was reduced to only 6 battleships and the army was reduced to 100,000 soldiers.
            • Germany was not allowed an airforce and the existing air force had to be destroyed.
              • The Rhineland [an area on the border of Germany and France] was demilitarised. This means no troops were allowed to defend it. Alias troops were allowed to enter this area.
        • War Guilt
          • Article 231 of the Treaty was known as the ' War Guilt Cause'. By signing the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was forced to take full blame and responsibility for starting the war.
        • League of Nations
          • The League of Nations was set up. This was an international organization designed to ensure future peace and collective security. Germany was NOT allowed to join!
    • Opposition to the Weimar  Republic
      • Freikorps- Right wing ex-soldiers who hated communsism
        • Spartacists- Communist [left wing] who wanted a revolution
          • Putsch- Attempt to overthrow the government
            • General Strike- A strike involving neares all industries
      • The Political Spectrum
        • Spartacists
          • Left Wing
            • In Weimar Germany:
              • Wanted revolution like Russia 1917
                • Believed the Weimar Republic didn't give enough power to workers
                  • Wanted government by councils of workers and soldiers
                    • Wanted to abolish power of the card-owning classes and the army
          • They were inspired by a famous gladiator named Spartacus
            • What did they do on the 5th of January?
              • On the fifth Janurary they seized the headquarters of the goverment newspaper and telegraph Bureay and tried to organise a general strike
                • What did the takeover fail?
                  • The take over failed as on the 15th of January the Spartacists were crushed
                    • What happened to their leaders
                      • The leaders were arrested and when were being transported to prison they got shot by 2 members of the Freikorps
                        • Why is the Spartacist revolt significant?
                          • The Spartacist revolt were significant for their uprising highlighted the instability of the Weimar Republic. A socialist, left wing government had been attacked by an even more left wing group
        • Kapp Putsch
          • In Weimar Germany:
            • Resented how the Weimar Republic's social democrat politicians abandoned the army 1918
              • Feared communists would do to their prosperity and values
                • Wanted to reverse Treaty of Versailles, resistance Kaiser and boost army.
                  • Had support from military, judiciary and civil service.
          • Why did the Freikorps hate the Treaty of Versailles
            • When the Treaty came into effect on 1st of January 1920 the government began to reduce the size of the army 100,000. This cut included disbanding the Freikorps
              • Who was their leader in the Putsch?
                • Their leader was Dr Wolfgang Kapp
                  • What did they do in the Putsch
                    • They called upon trade unions of Berlin to organise a general strike
                      • Although the army refused to move against Kapp and the Freikorps, what stopped the Putsch from being successful?
                        • Kapp found he could not rule Germany so he abandoned his place and fled to Sweden meaning the Putsch no longer had a leader
                          • What did the Kapp Putsch show about the Weimar Republic?
                            • The Kapp Putsch showed that the Republic had gained much support from the workers of Berlin. On the other hand, it reared the lack of support from the army who sympathised with the aims of the Putsch.
    • The Invasion of the Ruhr and Hyperinflation
      • KEYWORDS
        • Hyperinflation- When prices go up very quickly
          • Passive Resistance- To resist authority in a peaceful, non-violent way.
            • The Ruhr- The Industrial part of Germany that produced coal, iron and steel.
      • 1923
        • Germany could no longer repay the reparation repayments
      • The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919. Despite suffering 4 years of war Germany was forced to pay huge reparations [£6,600 million] and suffered territorial losses to the allies. This made reparations harder
        • Consequently, by the end of 1922 Germany couldn't afford to pay. They defaulted on their payment and requested an extension on payments.
          • The French refused their request and invaded the Ruhr [an industrial part of Germany which produced Iron] in order to "extract" payments through raw materials and resources
            • Germans in the area went on strike and refused to work in order to stop the French getting these resources. This was called "Passive Resistance"
              • This meant that Germany had even less money as they were no longer making money in this area. In addition, the German government were still paying the workers even though they were on strike.
                • Consequently, this put an enormous amount of pressure on the German economy, and in particular, on the German currency
      • What were the effects of the of Invasion
          • It actually UNITED the German people against the FRENCH [invaders], with the strikers being seen as heroes
            • The popularity of the Weimar Government temporarily increased because it had supported the Strikes who organised Passive Resistance
          • It had a disastrous effect on the ECONOMY:
            • The government was forced to print more money.
              • The strike meant that fewer goods were produced [this made inflation even worse!]
    • 1919-1923
      • The Early Years: The Weimar Republic
        • Kapp Putsch
          • Similarities
            • Wanted to overthrow the Weimar Republic
              • They both did a general strike
                • They both used the Freikorps
            • Wanted to overthrow the Weimar Republic
              • They Both did a general strike
                • They both used Freikorps
            • Differences
              • They are left wing
                • Spartacists  failed the General Strike
                  • They got arrested
              • They are right wing
                • They did didn't fail as much
                  • They didn't get arrested
    • Hyperinflation
      • Effects of Hyperinflation
        • The Rich- They usually had land and possessions and were protected from the worst effects of hyperinflation
          • The Middle Class- Many lost faith in the Weimar Republic and were convinced that it was unable to deal with serious economic problems
            • The Workers- Those in employment were generally secure because wages went higher. However, wage rises always lagged behind price rises
              • Farmers- Farmers benefited from rise in prices of food at a time when the farming industry was not doing well
                • Fixed Incomes- People on fixed incomes, such as pensions, found that they became worthless
                  • Business Man
                    • Many businessmen who had borrowed money from the banks were able to wipe out their debts. Others were able to take over smaller businesses that were going bankrupt
      • Bankruptcy- By 1923 Germany could no longer pay France the reparations
        • Germany asked for reductions but France needed money to pay War Debts to USA
      • Occupation of the Ruhr
        • In retaliation the French sent troops into the German Industrial area of the Ruhr
          • Confiscated Raw Materials such as manufactured goods
            • German government urged Passive Resistance
              • French replied by arresting those who obstructed them. They brought their own workers
                • Germany had reduced their army
                  • German Army 100,000 men
                  • French Army 750,00 men
      • Inflation
        • Price of things went up
          • Government needed more money to pay debts
            • Government received less from taxes as factories were failing
              • 1919-1923
                • Government income was only a 1/4 of what they required
                  • Government printed MORE Money
                    • Government had 300 paper mills and 2000 printing shops just to print more money
                      • Made it easier for the government to pay reparations
                        • However made inflation worse
                          • A loaf of bread coast 1 mark in 1919 in 1922 it cost 22 marks by 1923 it cost 100,000 million marks
                            • Everyone suffered from shortages
                              • Everyone found it difficult to buy what they needed
                                • People with Savings suffered the most

Comments

RaulLobo25

Great thing to use if you are doing GCSE History 

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