Hinduism theme 4

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  • Hinduism- Theme 4
    • Samkhya yoga/ bhakti movement
      • Development of samkhya philosophy
        • Primary text: Shvetashvatara Upanishad
        • Brahman is manifested in 3 forms: ishvara (personal god), atman (self) & prakriti (nature)
          • By following one of the yogas, the atman can be freed from prakriti & achieve moksha
        • Prakriti is composed of 3 gunas (plait analogy)
      • Ashtanga Yoga & Patanjali
        • Describes yoga as 'the suppression of modifications of the mind"
          • 8 stages of ashtanga yoga which bring the self to a state of pure consciousness
            • "But he who has gunas (qualities) and performs actions that bear fruit is surely the enjoyer of the result of the actions He performs" -S. Upanishad
      • Shankara
        • Main proponent of Advaita Vedanta
        • Inspired by Upanishads
        • Believes our individual soul (atman) is not different to ultimate reality (brahman)
      • Levels of reality
        • 1. Illusory reality- subjective, internal constructions of our mind
          • 2. Mundane reality- world of our senses. Product of maya
            • 3. Ultimate reality- Brahman nirguna
    • Hindu bioethics
      • Swasti Bhattacharya
        • Suggested ethical framework for ART in Mahabharata
          • Drew upon 3 birth narratives: Kunti, Madri, Gandhari
          • Depicts how they overcome major obstacles akin to ART today
      • Infertility
        • Most Hindus place great emphasis on family life. Would condone IVF
        • At an embryonic stage, no atman present?
        • Good action (karma) to give a child a loving home
      • S.Cromwell Crawford
        • "To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men" -Laws of Manu
        • Grihastha stage ranked highest- IVF acceptable for married couple?
        • King Pandu urges Kunti to find a proxy
      • Background
        • Product of mid 1960s. Until then hippocratic medical ethics had dominated- 'the physician knows best'
        • Recognises humans need to give informed consent, be aware of risks
        • Desai said that when faced with a new conflict, Hindus "make up a code of conduct by searching ancient lore for an appropriate example"
    • Bhakti movement
      • Yatra/ pilgrimage
        • Common among all forms of bhakti
        • Shaivites usually visit Kashi (city of Varanasi)
        • Vaishnavites visit Vrindavan, where Krishna grew up
      • Origin/ background
        • Brought Hindus hope, support, inner strength after suffering under Muslim rule
        • Most characteristic feature is the emphasis on single-minded devotion to God
        • Originates in BG
      • Teachings (BG)
        • 'He who offers to me with devotion only a leaf, or a flower, or a fruit or even a little water- I accept this offering'
        • 'For all those who come to me for shelter, however weak or humble or sinful they may be- women or Vaishyas or Sudras- they all reach the path supreme'
      • Different types
        • Bhakti MARGA- the way of loving devotion
          • "Leave all things behind and come to me for salvation"- Krishna
            • Brahman Saguna (with qualities)
        • SHAIVA BHAKTI- loving devotion to Shiva
          • Believes Shiva is the supreme God of Trimurti

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