Hinduism- theme 3

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  • Hinduism- Theme 3
    • Relationship between religion & society
      • Diversity/pluralism
        • Religious diversity- the coexistence of 2+ religious communities in a specific geopolitical setting
        • Religious pluralism: a value, cultural or religious ideology which positively welcomes the encounter of religions
        • Hinduism is naturally pluralistic
          • Rig Vedic hymn says "Truth is one, though the sages know it variously"
          • "All paths lead to me" -Krishna
      • Sarvodaya
        • Universal uplift/ progress of all
        • 3 basic principles
          • 1. Good of the individual is contained in the good of all
          • 2. All have the same right or earning their livelihood from their work
          • 3. A life of labour is a life worth living
        • Gandhi embraced the term as a name for his social movement in post-independence India
      • Exclusivism/ inclusivism
        • Exclusivism:the belief that only 1 religion/ belief system is true
          • The Hindutva movement emphasises Hindu nationalism
          • The Arya Samaj asserts the infallible authority of the Vedas, implying the inferiority of other religions
        • Inclusivism: asserts that while 1 particular religion is absolutely true, others are at least partially true
          • Vivekananda's neo-vedanta promotes tolerance and respect to all spiritual paths
          • Hindu scripture supports inclusivity
      • Ishta devata
        • Denotes a worshipper's preferred (or beloved) deity
          • Permits a wide range of deities to be worshipped
          • For many Hindus, the sincerity of one's worship is more important than the actual form bc deities are seen as manifestations of Brahman
    • Changing roles of men & women
      • Traditional views
        • Vedas suggests woman's primary duty is to help her husband perform obligatory duties
        • 4 prominent roles of a married Hindu woman
          • 1. Servant- DASI
          • 3. Mother- MATA
          • 4. Lover- RAMBHA
        • The Law Books state 'men and women are equal as sons and daughters'
        • Ceremonies were performed by men for men
      • Indira Gandhi
        • 1st and currently the only female PM of India
        • Actions reflect a desire to mobilise women
        • "Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top st once"
      • Contemporary views
        • Madhu Kishwar- Indian feminist, academic & writer
          • Primary motive: working for women's equality & freedom in all areas of life
        • 'Manushi'- "a pioneering feminist journal"
          • Received an unusual amount of support from numerous men with different ideological orientations
    • Impact of migration on Hindu identity
      • Hindu identity
        • Certain key beliefs define  a person as a Hindu
          • 1. A dharmic lifestyle
          • 2. Acceptance of pluralism
          • 3. Disciplined family life/ care for the elderly
      • Hindu integration in Britain
        • Main issue: lack of religious institutions
        • Culture shock e.g. working week
          • Funeral pyres- British public reacted badly
        • Vivekananda said: "learn from everything that is good from others, but bring it in, and in your own way absorb it; do not become others"
  • Enhanced through festivals/ pilgrimage/ worship

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