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  • Quantitative Research
    • Research design
      • Experimental research is research conducted with a scientific approach using two sets of variables. The first set acts as a constant, which you use to measure the differences of the second set.
      • A cross-sectional study is an observational study that involves the analysis of data collected from a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time. A cross-sectional study measures both the exposure and the outcome of interest at the same point in time. Cross-sectional studies differ from case-control studies due to the fact they aim to include very large samples that are representative of the whole population.
      • Survey research is defined as the collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions. This type of research allows for a variety of methods to recruit participants, collect data, and utilize various methods of instrumentation
      • The main feature of longitudinal designs is that the effect of time on the subjects of the research can be studied better than in cross-sectional designs where several groups (called cohorts), or one cohort divided up on the basis of a feature such as age, may be required.
    • Data collection methods
      • Laboratory Based
        • Laboratory-based data collection involves collecting data in an environment where all of the variables and conditions are controlled. This is so that you are only measuring the variables in the question. You are controlling all your variables so you know that you are only measuring the aspect you want to measure.
      • Field Based
        • Field research is defined as a qualitative method of data collection that aims to observe, interact and understand people while they are in a natural environment.
      • Survey Based
        • Data collection surveys collect information from a targeted group of people about their opinions, behavior, or knowledge.
    • Data analysis methods
      • Descriptive analysis provides information on the basic qualities of data and includes descriptive statistics such as range, minimum, maximum, and frequency. It also includes measures of central tendency such as mean, median, mode, and standard deviation.
      • Quantitative data is organized by dividing the observations into classes (bins or categories) Each class is treated as distinct values for the quantitative data.
      • Distribution curves are a graph of the frequencies of different values of a variable in a statistical distribution.
      • Inferential statistics are the statistical procedures that are used to reach conclusions about associations between variables. They differ from descriptive statistics in that they are explicitly designed to test hypotheses.


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