Henry's succession to the throne on the death of Henry III and its significance

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  • Henry's succession to the throne on the death of Henry III and its significance
    • The assasination of HIII and the resulting power vacuum polarized opinion in france and divided the realm
      • Protestants <3 Henry
      • The parlements under pressure from the League immeditately recognised the Cardinal of Bourbon as King "Charles X"
      • Unlikely alliance at St cloud divided - some joined league (La Tremoille immediately withdrew forces from Meudon)
        • Royal army besieging Paris halved - many refused to serve a "heretical" king so seige failed.
      • Catholic captains led by Francoid d'O recogised HN as king (accepted to protect catholic faith and place - towns and fortresses seized from rebels under CControl while still guaranteeing P rights in areas they held.)
    • Henry had to convince Catholic France he was rightful king
      • protestant had never suceeded to throne before
      • Leaguer nobles in particular were likely to put up fight
        • Spanish aid
      • Through skill, pragmatism and good luck
    • 1.appeasement
      • an immediate conversion out of question - but he obtained support of royal catholic officials - secular and clerical + broad commitment to a catholic monarchy and realm
      • compromise - could lead to rejection of protestantism = :( Huguenots
        • needed to gain support of the moderate Catholic majority - who were tired of civil war
      • to moderate C's support for H was preferable to that for the League -keeps Gallican independance from Rome
      • needed to gain support of the moderate Catholic majority - who were tired of civil war
    • 2.Military Action
      • Arques - continuous victories throughout Normandy. Winter 1589 - all major towns except Rouen and La Havre were taken and, in March 1590, Mayenne's army was routed once again at Ivry
      • Sept 1589, H was victorious over Mayenne at Aques near Dieppe
      • Paris = obstacle - galvanised by D of Nemours - Mayenne commander of League. May-Sept 1590, HN's seige brought great hardship and death to Paris. He called off seige in september (c opinion might unite against him)
      • need for effective miliart action and force in order to defeat the League on Battlefield
    • 3. Lack of a credible alternative
      • May 1590 COB died - Sept, Mayenne  claimed the throne for himself.
        • most leaguers preferred M's nephew CHarles, Dof guise / Phillip II?
          • extreme catholics disunited on accession views
      • Henry slowly emerging as only reasonable claimant
    • 4. support for the sixteen and the league wanes
      • the group of 16 becomming too powerful - division between noble league led by Mayenne and the revolutionary government in the capital
      • in late 1590, the 16's campaign of terror directed againt everyone suspected of moderate or politiques views.
        • 15 Nov 1591 the 16 purged the parlement - executing president Barnabe Brisson, two other magistrates - seems capital governed by terror.
          • mayenne forced to march back to Paris and restore order by force - 16 hanged at Louvre - whether they represented lower class and popular opinion debatable.
            • clear divisions between those who opposed HN widening.
            • support for league and 16 reached pinnacle during the day of barricades when opposition to HN united paris.
              • in 1591, other issues such as Spanish intervention, the succession, the nature of royal authority and the fear of social disorder served to polarise opinion and the role of 16 waned.
      • the parlement protested and several numbers of 16 resigned. The new, more radical 16 made up of la chapelle-Marteau, Acarie and Bussy-Leclerc determined to stamo out loyalist supporters
      • panic took over and parlement were accused of being too lenient over its action towards a royal agent Brigard
    • 5. war weariness and the presence of Spanish troops
      • HIV;s seiges of paris (1590) and Rouen (1592) failed because of PII general -D of Parma
        • despite numerical and financial adv, Parma defeated HIV
        • Henry had audaciously sent 7000 cavalry against 23000 strong spanish at Aumale - s withdrew - thought H had reserves
      • L divisions more apparent due to combination of tiredness with war, pillaging troops and poor harvests = presentation of strong government under HIV (attractive option)
    • BRIBARY
      • H spent around 30m livres in bribes and often agreed to settle a towns debts or exempt it from tax as compensation for ravages of war
        • good examples of H's pragmatism and recognition that urban and noble support crucial to kingship.
    • within a decade of Henry IV's accession, the civil wars ended - lasting peace secured.
      • collapse of effective govenment in large areas of France meant monarchy remained potentiakl source of order and authority
    • henry was aware that the sword alone could not win him the throne
      • 23 December 1598 Henry abjured from the protestant faith
        • The enthusiasm of adversaries ebbed away
  • L divisions more apparent due to combination of tiredness with war, pillaging troops and poor harvests = presentation of strong government under HIV (attractive option)

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