Last years of Henry VIII

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  • Henry's last years: crisis?
    • Finance
      • Inflation resulted in 1549 rebellions
      • Huge poverty and debt from wars
      • Forced to sell crown lands
      • Resulted in need for debasement
      • No tax required since Pilgrimage of Grace
    • Foreign Policy
      • Cost of battles
        • £2 million
      • Mary Q of S fleeing to France
      • Victory in France & Scotland
      • Threat from King of France
    • Religion
      • Act of Supremacy punishable for treason (death)
      • Dissolution of Monasteries  & shrines
      • Both cons. and refs. on Privy Council -tension
      • Edward was a protestant
      • Ambiguous policies
      • Six articles brought back conservative ideas
      • 1543 ONLY landowners read the bible in English
        • Not women
      • More reformers on council than cons.
    • Faction and Succession
      • Removal of Norfolk, Gardiner
      • Protection of Cranmer, Catherine Parr
      • Edward only a minor
      • Regretted removal of Cromwell
      • Inconsistent council - reformers and conservatives
      • Personal and conciliar rule
        • No chief minister
    • Crisis would have been easily triggered
      • Strongly religious people with political power


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