Henry's final years and Foreign Policy

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 07-04-14 16:36
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  • Henry's final years: Consolidation +Court Intrigue 1542-7
    • Faction Fighting
      • H's last years dominated by fighting betw/conservatives, led by Norfolk + Gardiner, who upheld Supremacy but wanted end to other reforms, + reformers, led by Cranmer + Seymour
      • King's Book 1543 revision of Bishop's book endorsed by H
        • Importance of Bible played down
        • Importance of Mass, transub. + confession reinforced
        • Images = proper provided used w/o superstition
      • Act for the Advancement of true religion 1543, H concerned to curb who could read English Bible
      • Concerned that too open access would cause unrest etc. about doctrines
      • Marriage to Catherine Parr 1543, Henry chose a known reformer as his last wife
      • Conservatives attempted to link her to Anne Askew, but when Wriothesley came with royal warrant for arrest, H dismissed it
    • Cranmer's position
      • Seemed to be in weak position, opposition to Act of 6 Articles proved fruitless, execution of ally Cromwell = major blow. Cranmer also secretly married
      • He did survive attempt by conservatives to charge him w/heresy 1543. He was the man H called for when he lay dying 1547
    • Foreign Policy
      • Last years of reign saw reversion to policy of War against Fr. + Scotland
      • 1542 H sent Norfolk to invade Scot.
      • English successful @ Battle of Solway Moss. James V died soon after leaving daughter Mary as Queen
      • H attempted to get Edward to marry her but does achieve Peace of Greenwich w/Scot 1543
      • 1544 H invaded France for last time, took Boulogne (port) adding to Calais. Peace of 1546 allowed E to hold it for 8yrs, actually v.expensive to maintain, drained finances
    • The Reforming coup of 1547
      • Just before H's death, reformers = dominant faction @ court
      • Indiscretions of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, Norfolk's son, led to his execution + imprisonment of Norfolk
      • Surrey supposedly claimed he should be regent for Prince Edward + even hoped to become King if he died
      • Gardiner also in trouble w/H over exchange of Church lands + execution of nephew Germaine
      • At same time, reforming faction under Seymours, Dudley + Cranmer was doing well
      • Seymour + Protestant allies controlled Privy Chamber + thus access to dying H
      • Control of royal household allowed them access to H's will + would allow them to disregard H's wishes about government for Prince Edward


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