Henry VIII and Foreign Policy

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  • Henry VIII and Foreign Policy
    • Relations with France
      • 1513 war
        • Henry wanted to renew 100 years war + reassert his claim to the French throne
        • Henry married Catherine of Aragon to renew alliance with Spain
        • Organised by Wolsey
          • Showed him as the one Henry could trust to run the Kingdom
        • Henry's success made him ambitious for future
      • Peace and Glory 1514-1522
        • Henry made peace 1514 + Wolsey managed to continue this when Francis I inherited the throne
        • Henry wanted to invade again in 1516 but Wolsey persuaded him not to
        • 1518 Treaty of London
          • Brought together great powers of Europe in 'universal peace'
        • 1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold
          • Henry + Francis met (triumph for Wolsey)
      • 1523 war
        • Henry hoped to benefit from alliance with Charles
        • English forces captured Boulougne + marchd towards Paris
          • BUT forced back by bad weather + lack of supplies
      • Peace maintained 1534-1529
        • 1525 Henry hoped to invade (Francis captured by Charles in Battle of Pavia)
          • Charles V not interested so peace made
    • Relations with Spain
      • Before 1516
        • Henry married Catherine in 1509
        • 1512 Spanish did not provide help needed for English expedition
          • Francis had promised the help
        • 1513 relations broke down as Ferdinand agreed to one year truce with France
      • After 1516 (situation transformed)
        • 1516 Charles V succeeded Ferdinand
        • 1519 Charles succeeded Maximilian as Emperor of Germany
        • Charles seemed perfect ally against France
          • Henry agreed to an alliance - to declare war on France in June 1522
        • 1522-1523 war against France as Charles V's ally
      • Relations with Charles worsen 1524-1529
        • Failure of French war 1523
        • 1525 Charles rejected Henry's plan to conquer France
          • Charles knew England had been negotiating peace with France
        • 1526 Wolsey organised 'League of Cognac' against Charles
        • 1527 Wolsey negotiated peace with France - Treaty of Greenwich
        • 1527 Henry began long campaign to annul marriage to Catherine (Charles' aunt)
    • Relations with the Papacy
      • Charles' troops sacked Rome + captured Pope
        • Worsened Charles' relations with Henry
        • Reversal of good relations between Papacy + Henry
          • Pope influential in international affairs + Henry saw himself as son of the Church
    • Relations with Scotland
      • Henry's sister  (Margaret) was married to James IV
      • 1512 James VI (encouraged by France) tried to invade England
        • Scots defeated in Battle of Flodden
          • James killed
      • English success + death of James made Margaret regent for young James V

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