Henry II 1133-1189. Reforms, church and rebellion.

Looks at financial and legal reforms made in England, the Thomas Beckett Crisis, the rebblion (the Great war) and the successes and failures in Henry II's territories.

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  • Created by: ava.scott
  • Created on: 06-04-14 13:05
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  • Henry II - r. 1154-1189. Reform, Religion, Rebellion and Rule.
    • Reforms
      • Finance
        • Henry II brought back the ancient tax of the Danegeld.
          • This was controversial because people didn't want to pay a tax that was irrelevant to their century
        • He reformed coinage twice, once in 11587 and again in 1180. The latter was more successful.
          • This boosted the English economy greatly as there was more money in circulation. The exchequers salary went from £18,000 to £20,00 p/a.
            • However , many people saw it as another money making scheme of the plantagenet kings. They never got all their money back after handing it in to be replaced.
            • Only 10 mints in the country so the king had great control over the currency.
        • Nigel fitzNeal was brought out of retirement to work as the Exchequer. He write the extensive manual to 12th century finances as instructions to his successor of the position.
          • These set of rules and regulations made it very difficult for corruption to take root. The Exchequer also stayed in the fitzNeal family for 3 generations, who were all very loyal to the king.
        • Reclaimed a lot of royal land e.g. in 1154 there were 24 earldoms and by 1180 there were only 11.
          • This decreased the amount of tenants-in-chief, so more profit from land went directly into the kings hands- increasing his control.
            • However, it really aggravated the nobility who were stripped of all their land, wealth and authority.
        • The meticulous keeping of pipe-rolls meant that debts were always repaid to the king.
          • Less money lost= more organised.
            • another example of the kings reach into local government is the 1170 Inquest of Sheriffs. It was dedicated to removing the malpractices and corruption in local government.
              • This mainly created a lot of hostility from the nobility, who felt vulnerable under Henry's new regime.
    • key:
      • sub-topic
        • events and examples
          • evaluation
            • topic
    • Church
      • Thomas Beckett, old friend of Henry's, was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162.
        • He very quickly became more religious, and began to disagree with the Kings proposed taxes on the clergy in 1162.
          • 1164- The constitutions of Clarendon. These were a set of rules that fully established power of the monarch over the church. Beckett refused to sign them.
            • This lead to Henry putting Beckett on trial for corruption as the previous Chancellor. Becke fled after recieivng hostility at his appearance in the trail (dressed in full clerical robes). He established a alternative government in Flanders, supposedly free of the English corruption.
              • Ensue a battles of excommunication and punishment for those who supported either enemy.
                • 1167-70- the Pope intervenes to try and concile relationships. Beckett and Henry met again and forgave each other ( of sorts.)
                  • Henry the Young King is crowned by three bishops other than Bdckett, who them excommuncates them all. He continues this practice with any of the kings supporters. Henry makes an exclamation ('Will noone rid me of this turbulent priest?') and four nights ride to Canterbury.
                    • Beckett is murdered in Dec 1170, in Canterbury cathedral, and is found wearing a notoriously pious and sacrificial hair vest. This vest changed peoples views of Becket.
                      • 1170+ Beckets blood rumours to have healing properties, and 'The cult of Becketts blood' grows in influence.
                        • History fault- the culture meant people very easily supported religious figures, making the whole situation seem a lot worse on Henry.
                      • 1173- The Pope canonises Beckett.
                        • History fault- the culture meant people very easily supported religious figures, making the whole situation seem a lot worse on Henry.
                      • 1174- Henry II makes penance to his old enemy, walking barefoot to his tomb.
                      • Beckets fault- he was stubborn and cruel, never giving up his punishments, even after the King has accepted him back.
                      • Henry's fault- His notoriously fiery temper got in his way, and made him make orders he never meant to.
                    • History's fault- the Pope has always got involved, becaus the battle between clergy and government is a matter of both religious and state affair.
                • Becket's fault- he was very extravagant and arrogant. He shouldn't have provoked hostility through these traits.
                • Henry's fault- unfair prosecution as Becket had been very faithful as a Chancellor.
              • Beckets Fault- never disagree with a king.
              • Henry's fault- He shouldnt have been so forceful with the introduction of rules over the ecclesiastical institution.
            • Beckets Fault- never disagree with a king.
          • Henry's fault- he chose Becket for the wrong reasons;; he wanted an inside man, to joing the church and government. He shouldn't have assumed Beckets allegiance to him.
            • History's fault- The church and government had old, long tensions that many kings had fought to bring to a close. A clash was inevitable.
      • Rebellion 1173-74
        • Reasons for rebellion
          • Young Henry is frustrated by how limited his power is in England, Normandy and Anjou.
          • Richard is also frustrated by his lack of power in Aquittaine, as is Eleanor.
          • William the Lion of Scotland is angry over territorial disputes in Cumbria and Northumbria.
          • Louis VII felt threatened by Henry II as he held so much land around him. He was also YH's father-in-law and supported his complaints.
          • Barons felt persecuted under Henry's reforms, angry about the Beckett crisis. Main baron rebels were Norfolk, Leicester and Chester.
        • Henrys actions against rebels
          • Forces Louis VII into a truce.
          • Captures William the Lion (after penance at Beckett's tomb)
          • Captures Eleanor.
          • Defeats all military threats quickly.
        • Consequences for rebels
          • Son are forgiven.
            • By 1180 both Geoffery and Richard are ruling their territories.
          • Eleanor is kept under house arrest.
          • William the Lion becomes a feudal subjet and Scotland is announced inferior to England.
          • Barons castles are destroyed and then forgiven.
      • Rule over territories
        • Normandy- good rule, only instability was caused by YH's death in 1183.
        • Brittany- Henry II had to invade in 1169 to enforce Geoffrey's rule. But peaceful after.
        • England- heavily reformed and controlled. Succession problems between Richard and John.
        • Ireland- submissive after 1171-72 expedition.
        • Anjou- controlled until 1187 when Philip invades and takes over
        • Aquittaine- Richard rebelled in 1187 against Henry, the people were loyal to him and Eleanor.
        • Scotland- William the Lion becomes liege lord in 1174, and all clergy are forced to wear fealty. previously there had been many skirmishes on the border.
        • Wales- never fully controlled, just announced as subordinate, but the Welsh princes were infact independent.
    • Legal
      • Reforms
        • Finance
          • Henry II brought back the ancient tax of the Danegeld.
            • This was controversial because people didn't want to pay a tax that was irrelevant to their century
          • He reformed coinage twice, once in 11587 and again in 1180. The latter was more successful.
            • This boosted the English economy greatly as there was more money in circulation. The exchequers salary went from £18,000 to £20,00 p/a.
              • However , many people saw it as another money making scheme of the plantagenet kings. They never got all their money back after handing it in to be replaced.
              • Only 10 mints in the country so the king had great control over the currency.
          • Nigel fitzNeal was brought out of retirement to work as the Exchequer. He write the extensive manual to 12th century finances as instructions to his successor of the position.
            • These set of rules and regulations made it very difficult for corruption to take root. The Exchequer also stayed in the fitzNeal family for 3 generations, who were all very loyal to the king.
          • Reclaimed a lot of royal land e.g. in 1154 there were 24 earldoms and by 1180 there were only 11.
            • This decreased the amount of tenants-in-chief, so more profit from land went directly into the kings hands- increasing his control.
              • However, it really aggravated the nobility who were stripped of all their land, wealth and authority.
          • The meticulous keeping of pipe-rolls meant that debts were always repaid to the king.
            • Less money lost= more organised.
              • another example of the kings reach into local government is the 1170 Inquest of Sheriffs. It was dedicated to removing the malpractices and corruption in local government.
                • This mainly created a lot of hostility from the nobility, who felt vulnerable under Henry's new regime.
      • Property
        • Novel Disseisin 1176- Any fre man could sue to recover lost lands. It used 12 neighbours as a jury to help come a fair decision on who the land belonged too. It was mainly to help reorganise land after the Anarchy.
        • Mort d'Ancestor 1176- This made it law for all men to inherit their father's land on his death.
        • Attepted to removed trails by ordeal e.g. trial by water. Instead, the litigants go a trail, which involved a GRAND ASSIZE (12 knights investigating the area in question.)
          • Helped introduce witnesses into law.
      • Criminal
        • Itinerant judges/ 'justices in eyre'- These judges were appointed by the king, and sent of circuits around the country, delivering the kings court's justice to every town. This introduced common law and also consistency in the judicial system. Results of each trial was written down onto plea rolls, so the decisions made before could be reiterated in similar cases- the beginning of precedents in law.
        • When they came to visit, 12 local men would identify criminals in the area to the sheriff, to be put up for trial. This introduces the idea of collective responsibility into law.
    • These new laws made henry popular because he came across as a fair king. It amde property cases fairer; this increased the monarchy's stability through popularity and organisation.
      • However, many Barons felt persecuted, as there was no lord above theirs (the king himself) Therefore, they felt they had unfair proceedings in the system. Also the Grand Assize meant their homes could be investigated, something they were never used to. This caused baronial unrest, perhaps leading to a few of them joining in with the rebellion in 1173-4.
        • Attepted to removed trails by ordeal e.g. trial by water. Instead, the litigants go a trail, which involved a GRAND ASSIZE (12 knights investigating the area in question.)
          • Helped introduce witnesses into law.
      • Novel Disseisin 1176- Any fre man could sue to recover lost lands. It used 12 neighbours as a jury to help come a fair decision on who the land belonged too. It was mainly to help reorganise land after the Anarchy.
    • Good because it introduced consistency within the sytstem as precedents. It organised the judicial system so the monarch could extract money from it very easily.
      • However, it relied on the morality of the nobility still, as the sheriffs chose the jury, and the jury had no say in the actual outcome of the trial. Also, trial by ordeal was still used as a last minute resource.
        • When they came to visit, 12 local men would identify criminals in the area to the sheriff, to be put up for trial. This introduces the idea of collective responsibility into law.
      • Itinerant judges/ 'justices in eyre'- These judges were appointed by the king, and sent of circuits around the country, delivering the kings court's justice to every town. This introduced common law and also consistency in the judicial system. Results of each trial was written down onto plea rolls, so the decisions made before could be reiterated in similar cases- the beginning of precedents in law.

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