Foreign Policy - Henry VIII

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  • Created by: Hol19
  • Created on: 11-04-16 11:33
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  • Henry VIII Foreign policy
    • 1940 - 1947
      • France
        • Matters got worse for Henry in 1545 - Francis sent troops to Scotland for an invasion, English defeat at Ancrum Moor and Henry's flagship sunk
        • Henry set off at the head of the army but were restricted in the vicinity of Calais.
          • By this time the emperor had enough and made separate peace with Francis.
        • The French never recovered Boulogne and the invasion on England never materialized. They agreed peace in 1546
        • To facilitate French invasion Henry set up an alliance with the emperor
      • Scotland
        • rough wooing - Henry tried to secure a marriage between Mary and Edward (his son).
          • All seemed to go well but there was widespread suspicion of English intentions so the Scots refused to allow Mary to live in England.
            • The treaty of Greenwich -  says that the children were formally betrothed but the Scottish parliament refused to ratify the treaty.
              • Because of this Henry demanded that raids should be carried out on Edinburgh, St Andrews and Leith
        • Henry was more interested in the invasion of France so he looked for diplomatic pressure as a means of securing his Scottish objectives
        • James V died shortly after the defeat leaving Mary as an heir.
        • Henry failed in foreign policy in Scotland as he did not  take the opportunity to seize power when he had it,and his ordering of raids as retaliation.
        • England's invasion of Scotland in 1542 was success. The Scots were forced by demands they could not meet and as a result were defeated in the battle of Solway Moss.
    • 1509 - 1514
      • In 1512 Henry sent an army  of 10,000 men to France - however nothing was achieved and was used by Ferdinand of Aragon as a diversion tactic
      • Nothing was gained from Henry's military roles. He had to liquidate assets and the renegotiated French pension was lost.
      • The battle of spurs 1513 - Henry ;led another invasion on France. This was successful in capturing towns of Therouanne and Tournai.
      • The renewal of the treaty of Etaples in 1510
      • Battle of Flodden September 1513 - was an Anglo- Scottish conflict. James himself was killed in the battle.
      • The creation of the Holy league - which joined England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and Venice in an anti French alliance
    • 1527 - 1540
      • in 1532 Henry tried to shore up his position  by making a fragile alliance with France so together they could put pressure on the emperor
      • Wolsey tried to pressurise the pope with a trade embargo with the Burgundian lands but Charles retaliation created widespread unemployment and social problems.
        • This was exemplified by the battle of Landriano in 1529
      • In the circumstances Henry had to break with Rome to solve his great matter - This horrified catholic powers but there were no repercussions.
        • Henry tried to reinforce his position by creating the league of Schmalkalden which founded amid mutual; distrust
      • Forced by their weak position, they had tp make an anti - imperial alliance with France at the treaty of Amiens in 1527
      • Henry's pressure was reduced in 1536 - the death of Catherine and the execution of Anne, the renewal of fighting between Francis and the ,emperor
      • The failure of the great matter left England still weak.
      • Henry;'s position weakened again in 1538 as Charles and Francis buried their differences in the treaty of Nice.
        • creation of the six Articles Act 1539 which was intended to reassure catholic opinion in England.
      • For the first part of his reign, Henry had no concerns with Ireland. However after the revival of the Geraldine Butler feud, the relationship broke down.
        • Henry found Ireland difficult to govern with kildare. However his dismissal in1534 led to major rebellion - suppressed with great difficulty and expense.
          • Ireland became an increasing drain on the crown's resources. The situation was made worse by resentment among the Gaelic lords as they tried to pacify Ireland by establishing it into a separate kingdom.
    • 1514 - 1526
      • Friendship between France and England continued
        • England agreed to return Tournai
        • French once again agreed to pay England a pension to compensate for it's loss.
      • Wolsey successfully ended England's isolation with the treaty of London 1518
        • This treaty had origins of peace negotiations and finally became a treaty of perpetual peace between England, France , Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
          • 'non aggression pact'
      • England remained a minor power and couldn't compete with the main powers. France and Scotland still had a strong alliance and Henry strongly overestimated English power.
      • After the death of Louis, the throne was left to Francis. who was a political rival.
        • Henry tried to see an alliance with Ferdinand but after his death in 1916, Spain sought an alliance with France.
          • The following year the treaty of Cambrai was achieved with the French leaving England isolated.
      • By 1514 Henry had run out of money. He sought peace with France by marrying his younger sister Mary to the king and was unable to exploit the weakness of Scotland
      • Field of the cloth of Gold 1520 - between Henry and Francis. It cost around £15,000 but the event lost attraction when Henry was beaten by Francis in a wrestling match.
      • Battle of Pavia 1525 - suggested to Charles they launch a joint attack on France to achieve territorial gains. However it had lack of support.
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