Henry VII Foreign Policies

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  • Created on: 20-02-16 13:18
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  • Henry VII Foreign Policies
    • Brittany Crisis.
      • The French wanted to own Brittany, if they did it would have been absorbed in to the French empire.
        • Maximilian and Ferdinand opposed the expansion (it would be bad for them in terms of power)
          • Ferdinand sent 1000 soldiers to defend the independence of Brittany.
          • Henry feared the expansion of france, (gaining access to north coast especially). He also feared the cost and effect of war. (Henry also owed a debt of gratitude for harbouring him).
            • In 1488 the battle of Saint-Aubin-Du-Comier took place, the allies and forces of Brittany were defeated, France were the victors. Later that year Francis II duke of Brittany dies.
              • His daughter Anne of Brittany is then exposed and becomes a ward under Anne of Beajeu ( a regent of France, regarded as the most powerful women of France)
                • Anne wanted the ward Anne of Brittany to marry her brother Charles VIII (she had the power to)
                • Ferdinand and Maximilian look at Henry for assistance, he signs the treaty of Redon (1489) - agrees to send 6000 (only sent 3000) to Brittany to defend their independence. Anne agrees to not marry Charles VIII without Henry's prior consultation
                  • 1489 the treaty of Dordrecht with Maximilian, Henry sent 3000 troops to help Max elsewhere - in return Max would support Henry. However Maximilian did not give support.
                    • The Treaty of Medina del campo - marriage alliance between spain and Henry  - Spain say they will help Henry but they failed to give support.
                      • Max marries Anne by proxy (Anne of brittany) In 1491 Anne however is forced to marry Charles VII
                        • Henry alarmed by this raises £148,000 against the French aggression. War would not be a good idea, as its too costly but also Henry's dynastic reignition is rocky. (France could also aid more pretenders).
                          • The result? - (outcomes and The treaty of Etaples).
                            • The treaty was signed in 1492 to stop the crisis. Troops were removed , the French gained Brittany, and £159,000 went to England via the French  for the trouble.
                              • Success? - It achieves peace with France - he needs peace with France because it would close France off from Warbeck. Also a costly war is avoided. However it was limited the because the original aim of protecting Brittany had failed. His relationships with allies were broken (Max and Ferdinand).
    • Relations with Scotland.
      • Hostile neighbour to England.
        • Known for the Auld alliance, the idea that France and Scotland are a natural alliance due to their position (sandwiching England).
        • Often par-take in low scale border raids.
      • The Scottish were bitter because they wanted Berwick and Dunbar to be returned to them.
        • Earlier in Henry VII’s reign , he had the support from the Earl of  Angus as a supporter. James IV was a minor as long as Angus rooted for Henry he was safe.
          • The Potential marriage for his daughter Margaret would then resolve a lot of problems.
          • James IV is anti-English, hates Henry , And Angus’s influence diminishes in 1495.
            • In 1495 Jame welcomes Warbeck to the Scottish court
              • In response Henry raises a sum of £120,000 to fight against Scotland.
                • However in 1497 the South west rebelled against Henry and has to direct this money to that
                  • Warbeck's failure then put James in a position to make peace with Henry. This then caused the treaty of Ayton (which was reinforced by perpetual peace 5 years later and the marriage of Margaret).
    • Castilian Succession
      • Isabella of Castile had died, and only her sister Joanna could inherit it.
        • Joanna is married to Phillip of Burgundy.
          • Henry VII was now forced to choose between Ferdinand or Philip of Burgundy
            • Ferdinand is weakened and he only rules Aragon. Henry is still bitter over Ferdinand, he failed to give him aid in the Medina del Campo. Nothing was  in it for Henry backing Ferdinand.
            • Burgundy is an essential trading post. central of the cloth industry, Suffolk was being sheltered by Max , pressure could be put on Max to hand him over.Henry wants to secure his throne. also potential to marry Phillips daughter for his son.
            • However Henry’s hand is forced when Ferdinand marries Louis the XIII Niece, meaning there is a new alliance between Aragon and France.
              • This alliance threatens England. Ferdinand does this because he is isolated.  Philip of burgundy is also threatened by this alliance a, so he sets of for Castile to defend his homeland. But with French backing Ferdinand can take Castile by force.
                • in 1506 , Philip is ship wrecked on the way there, this is a great opportunity for Henry- he essentially agrees to an alliance with Philip. allowing for a favourable treaty of for England called the Intercursus Malus. its so unfair it was never implemented. however he managed to secure Suffolk being sent to England.
                  • All is good. And then Philip dies...
                    • Ferdinand retakes Castile and England is exposed. .in 1508 Henry is relieved of the pressure because Maximilian and Ferdinand have a treaty and decide to par-take in the Italian wars.


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