Henry VII Revisions

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  • Government
    • HENRY VII 1485-1509
      • Foreign Policy
        • France and Brittany
          • France wanted control over Brittany- this worried Henry and Europe
          • Treaty of Redon with Brittany
            • Agreed to give financial and military support but Anne couldn't marry or make any treaties w/o Henry
              • But Anne- under pressure- surrendered to France and married Charles VIII
          • England invaded France but late in the campaign year
            • Treaty of Etaples- 1492- nice pension from French and they withdrew support for Warbeck
        • HRE, Burgundy and Netherlands
          • Netherlands were a key trading power- Antwerps and Bruges
          • Trouble arose when they started helping Perkin Warbeck
            • Henry issues a trade embargo on trade with the Netherlands
              • this put trade at risk, but showed Henry was willing to put one of his aims of foreign policy above the other (dynastic security and trade)
          • Intercursus Magnus 1496
            • restored trade relations and led to Warbeck being abandoned
          • Intercursus Malus- never signed because Henry died
        • Spain
          • Treaty of Medina del Campo (1489)
            • mutual protection from invasion
            • Marriage alliance between Catherine and Arthur
              • didn't work out- married in 1501, Arthur died in 1502
                • Henry suggested his other son but this would require papal dispensation
              • Couldn't agree on Dowry and Ferdinand was wary on the threat of Wabeck
          • ISABELLA DIES-- Castillian Succession Crisis
            • Henry decided to back Juana, Ferdinand's daughter
              • Treaty of  Windsor (1506)
                • Intercursus Malus
                • Proposed marriage between Henry and Margaret
                • Recognition of Juana and Philip as rightful rulers of Castille
              • PHILIP DIES in 1506
                • Juana goes cray- Ferdinand seized power and become regent
        • Scotland
          • Problems rose when James IV provided hospitality to Perkin Warbeck
            • gave him a pension, marriage and encouraged him to cross the border and invade England
              • The invasion was unsuccessful
              • but encouraged Henry to raise small army against Scotland
                • CORNISH REBELLION (1497)
                  • Sparked by Resentment against taxation to finance the war against Scotland
                  • reached Blackheath
                    • Raises questions of how secure the Crown was and how effective the maintenance of law and order was
          • Peace Treaty at Ayton- relations improved
            • Warbeck was executed in 1499
            • Treaty of Perpetual Peace
              • James should marry princess Margaret
      • Society
        • Yorkshire Rebellion, 1489
          • Sparked by resentment against taxation for wars in France
          • Significant because of the death of the duke of Northumberland
        • CORNISH REBELLION (1497)
          • Sparked by Resentment against taxation to finance the war against Scotland
          • reached Blackheath
            • Raises questions of how secure the Crown was and how effective the maintenance of law and order was
        • Nobility
          • peerage comprised of 50- 60 men
          • relied upon for maintenance of law and order
          • Patronage- Henry gave patronage to people who supported him- a way to ensure loyalty
          • Bonds and Recognisances
          • laws passes against Retaining 1486 and 1487
          • Acts of Attainder-138 passed, 46 reversed
      • Economy
        • Agricultural Economy
          • as the population increased, income from agriculture increased
          • move towards sheep farming- as demand for wool increased, trade developed
            • Peasants lost out on common land and rights
        • Trade and industry
          • Cloth Trade
            • Responsible for 90% of value of exports
            • increase of 60% in value of cloth trade
            • in first half of century, it comprised mainly of raw wool, but as trade developed the demand for finished wool grew
              • Provided employment opportunitiesmore time and skill were required for finished wool- dying, fulling etc.
            • Merchant Adventurers exported finished wool but found it hard to compete with Hanseatic League
              • the power of the Hanseatic league increased after threatened in 1574 and 1504- perhaps Henry did this to ensure they wouldn't support the claim of the Earl of Suffolk
          • Other Industries
            • mining industry remained relatively small scale
          • Trade Laws and Treaties
            • Intercursus Magnus
            • Treaty of Etaples (1492) encouraged trade relations
            • Navigation Acts of 1485 and 1489
              • Said only English ships could carry certain products to and from ports
    • Council
      • Advise the King
      • Didn't have to be a councillor to have influence- E.g Margaret Beaufort
      • Make Legal Judgements
    • Council Learned
      • Maintain Crown finances by exploiting prerogative rights
      • Empsom and Dudley
        • Very unpopular- created a feared combnationwho extracted money from subjects
    • Court and Household
      • Always found whatever the King was
      • Court was  where personal advancement could be made and where people could influence the king
      • Two Levels: the household proper and the Chamber- headed by the Lord Chamberlain
      • When Henry was betrayed by William Stanley, he remodelled the Court and created the Privy Chamber- a far more private. This made it more difficult for people to influence the King
    • Parliament
      • Pass Laws
      • Grant Taxation
      • Henry had 7 Parliaments in his reign
        • First  few were concerned with national security and raising revenue
      • Esixted since 13th C, but wasn't a central element of government
    • Domestic Policy
      • JPs
        • Maintained Law and Order in the Countryside
        • Most were local gentry who fulfilled their duty unpaid
      • Bonds and Recognizances
        • A debt to the crown- used to enforce law and obedience
    • Royal Finances
      • Feudal Dues- £6000 by 1507
      • Crown Lands- £42,000
      • Profits of Justice- £200,000 promised, but not all paid
      • Extraordinary Revenue- over £400,000
      • Pensions- Treaty of Etaples, £5000 p/a
      • Customs Revenue- went from £34,000- £38,000 across reign

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