Henry VII - Key Individuals

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  • Henry VII - How important was the role of key individuals and groups & how were they affected by developments?
    • Elizabeth of York 1486
      • After the Battle of Bosworth, Elizabeth was a key individual in Henry legitimising his claims to the throne.
        • Their marriage was significant as it brought both houses together.
          • Untitled
    • Stafford & Lovell rebellions Easter 1486
      • Led by Yorkists: Lovell, Stafford & Humphrey who had been in sanctuary in Colchester but emerged from hiding in 1486 to raise troops against Henry.
        • Their rebellion quickly collapsed as Henry organised armies to confront any rebels. He ordered pardons to those who submitted & to avoid bloodshed.
          • Significant as Henry realised the weak position he was in internationally. He was surrounded by countries who would benefit from supporting a Yorkist claimant.
    • Lambert Simnel 1486-87
      • Simnel appeared in Ireland and was joined by the Yorkist claimant, the Earl of Lincoln & 3000 German mercenaries supplied by Margaret of Burgundy.
        • John de la Pole was killed with Lovell being assumed dead at Battle of Stoke. Simnel was found employment in the King's kitchen.
          • This rebellion was significant as many historians believe caused the end of the War of the Roses as the Yorkists were mainly suppressed.
    • Perkin Warbeck 1491
      • Foreign support from Charles VIII of France, Margaret of Burgundy, HRE Maximillian and James IV of Scotland
      • Success? No, Henry continued to eliminate Yorkist threats. However, he started to carry out harsher policies.
      • After defeating the rebellion, Henry married his son, Arthur to the daughter of Ferdinand of Spain.
        • With Warbeck removed; Henry could claim that his kingdom was strong and stable.
    • James IV
      • Scotland had an alliance with France - this worried Henry which is why he worked hard to conclude truces with both nations within first 3yrs of his reign.
        • Furthermore, the Scots welcomed Warbeck - adding more pressure to Henry7.
          • Led to Truce of Ayton (1497) & Treaty of Ayton (1502); sealed bymarriage of James to Margaret in 1503.
    • Yorkshire Rebellion 1489
      • Sparked by taxation grant for campaign in Brittany, sent a large army under Earl of Suffolk. Sir John Egremont became the new leader - fled for his life at Margaret of Burgundy's court.
        • Margaret of Burgundy
          • The Burgundy family had ties with the Yorkist family & was eager to see Yorkists back in power.
            • For this reason, they had supported the De La Poles & rising of Warbeck.
              • They were significant as an alliance between them & Scotland would potentially threaten England.
              • As a result of Margaret of Burgundy "recognising" Warbeck as her nephew, Max I & (for a while) Charles VIII went along with it to strengthen their hand = Threat
        • Not as important but seen as a failure of Henry's reign as he lost an experience noble but lost out on any more money being gained from Yorkshire & Northumberland for Brittany.
          • However, it strengthened Henry as it allowed him to improve his image as he only attacked the leaders and pardoned the followers.
  • Furthermore, Henry issued 28 Acts of Attainder and used the Star Chamber to assert law & order.This was important as istart of harsher policies.
  • Margaret of Burgundy
    • The Burgundy family had ties with the Yorkist family & was eager to see Yorkists back in power.
      • For this reason, they had supported the De La Poles & rising of Warbeck.
        • They were significant as an alliance between them & Scotland would potentially threaten England.
        • As a result of Margaret of Burgundy "recognising" Warbeck as her nephew, Max I & (for a while) Charles VIII went along with it to strengthen their hand = Threat

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