- Henry VII- What problems did he face?
- The treasury was empty after years of economic strain from the civil wars and the 100 year war with France.
- The civil war had allowed many nobles to become powerful holding private armies while the many depositions had caused a breakdown in loyalty towards monarchs. Nobles were powerful and were prepared to rebel if they did not get their way, sometimes encouraging others to join them causing political factions.
- There was a breakdown in law and order with many of the private armies of nobles pillaging the countryside.
- France and Scotland were long term enemies of England
- Henry's claim to the throne was weak, it was on his mothers side and it was an illegitimate line that had been legitimised but barred from the throne. His claim also relied on the princes in the tower being dead and thereby Elizabeth of York being the next strong york claimant.
- But- many weren't satisfied with this usurper. Lord Lovell and the Staffords (Richards loyal men) broke sanctuary while Henry was on progress and tried to start a rebellion in Yorkshire- it was quickly snuffed when Henry offered a royal pardon and the rebels disbanded.
- Simnel rebellion- 1487 this relied on Edward Earl of Warwick being dead, which he wasn't and he was soon shown to London. The forces still met at the Battle of Stoke field where Simnel's forces were crush but Simnel was shown mercy and became part of the king's servants eventually bcoming the royal falconer.
- warbeck was a major threat as he pretended to be the heir Richard Duke of York. He was believed by Margaret of Burgundy, the Holy Roman Emperor, and James III even married him to his cousin Cathy Gordon. They tried to attack at the same time as the Cornish Rebellion but failed and handed over to king's forces where he later was executed after an escape attempt.