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  • Physical Aids
    • Pharmacological Aids
      • Anabolic steroids
        • an artificial protein that enables performer to train at the eltie level regular capacity
          • increase muscle growth, larger decrease in recover time
          • breast tissue growth/genital shrink in males, hair loss/deeper voice/facial hair for females, unpredictable aggression (roid rage), acne and liver damage
      • Erythropoietin  EPO
        • used to help increase RBC production - fake rhEPO
        • increase O2 carrying capacity, improved aerobic capacity, decrease impact of fatigue for endurance performances
        • Increase blood viscosity, decrease cardiac output, increased risk of blood clot, leading to heart failure as its harder to pump out
      • Human Growth Hormone
        • Used to increase the rate of protein synthesis
        • increased rate in recover/growth/repair rate for muscle tissue, increased metabolism
        • abnormal bone and muscle development, vital organ enlargement leading to organ failure, increased risk of cancer and diabetes
    • Physiological Aids
      • Blood doping
        • 25% of blood removed, body replenishes supply, just before the event they put the blood back in, the body now has a greater ability to attract O2 to haemoglobin and has 25% more blood
        • greater RBC and haemoglobin count, better O2 carrying capacity, longer performance, greater resistance to OBLA and fatigue
        • demotivates and disrupts training, hard to reach normal working rates, dehydrates, decreased immune function, risk of infection
      • Intermittent Hypoxic training
        • training the body at low O2 levels to stimulate muscular adaptations, increased mitochondria levels and the ability to fight PH changes
          • adaptations can be lost quickly, unable to reach training potential levels, demotivating, dehydrates
          • acclimatised for altitude, higher rbc and haemoglobin affinity, greater O2 carrying capacity
      • Cooling Aids
        • before event - reduce core temp, sustain intensity and speed of performance whilst reducing thermal strain and cardiovascular drift
        • After event - speeds up recovery, reduce muscle damage, decrease DOMS, remove waste products from muscle tissue
        • Reduce core temp, less sweat/fatigue/dehydration, decreased injury pain, faster recovery, decreased DOMS
        • hard to perceive exercise intensity, ice burns, hides injury, chest pain and reduced efficiency, dangerous for heart conditions
    • Nutritional Aids
      • Hydration
        • Hypotonic
          • Lowe levels of glucose, fluid replacement without boost
        • Hypertonic
          • high levels of glucose (15%), absorbed slower than water, causes dehydration, cause dehydration
        • Isotonic
          • equal balance of glucose to hydrate and energise performer, promotes energy production
      • Creatine
        • amino acids for protein synthesis, fuel for high intensity - phosphocreatine, perform greater duration for explosive
        • increased phosphocreatine stored, increased fuel, greater energy production, higher intensity and duration of training and performance, increased max and explosive strength
        • increased weight, increased water retention, cramps, gastrointestinal problems, unclear about long term impacts
      • Caffeine
        • stimulant to heighten nervous system - RCC, CCC, VCC
        • increased nervous stimulation, increased focus, increased mobilisation of fats, increased performance, preservation of muscle glycogen
        • dehydration, insomnia, anxiety, gastrointestinal problems
      • Bicarbonate
        • neutralising agent to lactic acid
          • push body beyond natural state
        • increased tolerance to lactic acid, delays OBLA, increased intensity and duration, increased buffing capacity
        • Gastrointestinal problems, taste causes nausea
      • Nitrates
        • reduce blood pressure, increase flow, increase performance intensity, delay fatigue
        • Headaches, dizziness, long term effects on health, possible carcinogenic


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