- Health Issues: Global Patterns of Morbidity
- Illness and the reporting of disease.
- Some diseases are so infectious they must be, by law, reported. Examples include Plague, Cholera and Yellow Fever.
- Virus, attacking upper respiratory tracts, usually lasting about a week.
- In the very young, the elderly and those with pre-existing conditions, it may lead to severe complications such as pneumonia.
- Spreads around the world. Seasonal epidemics.
- 5-15 % affected in annual epidemics, so great economic burden from healthcare costs/ lost productivity.
- 3- 5 million cases of severe illness. 250,000 - 500,000 deaths globally per year from flu.
- Influenza outbreaks in the tropics year-round. High attack and case-mortality rates.
- Madagascar (2002). 27,000 cases in 3 months and 800 deaths despite intervention.
- 'Spanish Flu' 1918-1919. Killed at least 40 million people worldwide. Highest death rate among healthy young adults.
- Yellow Fever
- Viral disease. Wide spectrum of infection from mild symptoms that affects some patients to jaundice (hence 'yellow'), severe illness and death.
- Vaccine has been available for over 60 years, but increase in last 20 years.
- Problems occur is a 'toxic' phase is entered within 24 hours (15% cases.) Bodily systems are affected. Half of all patients in toxic phase die within 10-14 days (kidney failure)
- Virus constantly present at low levels in Africa/ the Americas (endemic)
- Viral presence amplifies to regular epidemics.
- 33 countries (508 million people) in Africa at risk.
- 200,000 cases (30,000) deaths on average per year, but under-reporting of disease.
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