Health and people 1000c

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  • Health and people 1000c
    • Hippocrates
      • Ancient Greece
        • Surgery and anatomy
        • Doctor and teacher of doctors on the island of Cos
      • Hippocrates wrote the Hoppocratic Corpus which the first detailed lisy of symptoms and treatments
      • Encouraged natural treatments
      • Believed the body contained four humours; blood,phlegm, yellow bile and black bile the body was healthy when they were balanced and it would release the excess  when they were unbalanced. They were linked with the seasons.
      • Observed and monitored patients before treating them. this is still done today. Doctors also swear the Hippoctaic oath regarding patient confidentially and treatement of  the sick.
    • Galen
      • Roman Empire
      • Surgery and anatomy
      • Became a surgeon at Gladiator school, moved to Rome where he performed public dissections and became a doctor to the empires
      • Dissected animals  to gain better understanding of the body, but wrongly that animals and human body were the same.
      • Observed human skeletons
      • He wrote books combining Greek ideas with his own.These became the the basis of medical teaching for the next 1500 years.
      • He proved that the brain controls the body.
      • He made discoveries about the nervous system and anatomy of animals.
    • Rhazes
      • Middle ages
      • Surgery and anatomy
      • he wrote over 200 books including ieas as well as looking at ancient texts.
    • Avicenna
      • Surgery and Anatomy
      • Wrote a medical encyclopaedia call the 'canon'  which taught European doctors until the 1600s. He was known as the Galen if Islam.
    • Jenner
      • Industrial revolutiom
      • disease and infection
      • Noticed that milkmaids who caught cowpox did not catch smallpox
      • He took pus from a milk maid and rubbed into small cuts on a boys arm, believing that cowpox prevented people from getting smallpox
        • The boy contracted cowpox and recovered quickly. When the process was repeated with smallpox, the boy didnt contract smallpox
      • In 1978, Jenner published his book describing vaccination and detailing his evidence.
      • Lack of equipment and understandingof germs meant he couldnt prove why his vaccination.
      • Vaccine from vacc (cow). Vaccinations are wgere a different disease is given to prevent a disease. An inoculationis when a small weakened of dead dose of a disease is gived to the personmake the person immune to the same disease.
    • Snow
      • Convinced prince albert that chloroform was a safe pain relief and anaesthrtic for Queen Victorias labours
    • Liston
      • The first to use ether as an aesthetic, used it for leg amputation.
    • Simpson
      • Industrial  revolution
        • Surgery and anatomy
          • Tested many chemicals and found inhaling Chloroform made people fall unconscious.
            • A professor of midwifery  Chloroform was the 1st anesthetic used in childbirth
              • it also meant less pain during surgery. Surgery was more accurate beacuse doctors had more time, and fewer patients die from shock.
                • Chloroform had negative side effects on somw patients e.g vomiting. Religion opposed chloroform as they believed women should be in pain during birth. Some doctors opposed it because it was new and untested, and gave doctors too much power
    • Davy
      • Discovered the effective=nessof nitrous oxide.
    • Pasteur
      • Industrial Revolution
        • Disease and infection
          • Was asked ti investigate why beer at a local brewery was going bad. He discovered it was due to micro-organisms in the beer, which he called germs. He said that the germs were causing decay and published his germ theory in 1801.
            • Proved for the first time that germs were causing disease in animals (silkworm) and that disease was spread by germs in the air.
              • Discovered that weakened germs protected people from getting  stronger dose (discovered this with chicken cholera)
                • Had success with animal vaccines and successfully vaccinated a human boy (Joseph Meister) for rabies
                  • Proved that vaccination worked
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    • Lister
      • Industrial Revolutiond
        • Surgery and anatomy
          • Known as the Father of Antiseptic Surgery
            • Used lint soaked in carbolic acid to cover wounds to keep them clean (knew about Pasteur's germ theory)
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              • Divised a machine that pumped out a fine mist of cerbolic acid into the air around as an operation ocurred so the patient, surgeon, room and medical equipment were covered. Carbolic acid caused skin irritation.
                • He faced opposition from others in the medical profession who didn't want to be told how to work.
                  • Before Lister, Semmelweiss had told doctors to wash their hands before and after patients.
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