Hazards of Volcanic Activity

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  • HAZARDS OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
    • ENVIRONMENT
      • ASHFALL - Mt Pinatubo, 1991 - blocked insolation => World Temperature fell by 1°C.
      • ASHFALLS & LAHARS - Mt Pinatubo -  More than 86,000 hectares of agricultural lands and fishponds were affected.
      • VOLCANIC GASES - Laki Eruption, Iceland, 1783 - USA winter average temperature 4.8°C below 225 year average.
      • LAHARS - Redoubt Volcano, Iceland, 1989-1990 - Pyroclastic flows melted snow & ice causing lahars in Drift River.
        • Dense forest within 10km of the summit was destroyed.
          • Reduce biodiversity of plant species.
        • Destroyed / damaged 167 lakes
    • SOCIAL
      • PYROCLASTIC FLOW - Montagne Pelee Volcano, Martinique - The city of St Pierre's 28,000 population died with only 2 survivors.
        • Emotional Distress - breakdown of families
      • Mt Pinatubo - 1.2 million people lost their homes around the volcano and had to migrate to shanty towns in Manila.
        • Psychological effect on community as homes are destroyed
      • Icelandic Eruption 2010 - 6,000 people affected as 4,000 flights cancelled.
        • Companies had to compensate passengers - est. loss £120mn/day.
          • Thomson lost £5/6mn/day.
        • P&O ferries has to close all ferries & hire more staff
          • ECONOMIC
            • PYROCLASTIC FLOW - Redouet, Alaska - $1.8bn in damage.
            • Companies had to compensate passengers - est. loss £120mn/day.
              • Thomson lost £5/6mn/day.
            • 2008 Kilauea, Hawaii - eruption led to acid rain, caused crops to fail => crops put in greenhouse => reduced profits.
            • Mt Pinatubo 1991 - LAVA MOVEMENT & ASHFALL caused death 1mn livestock.
            • £100mn spent on evacuation & emergency aid - OC of British taxpayers money being spent elsewhere.
              • Soufriere Hills, Montserrat - 7,000 of 11,000 pop. forced to evacuate.
                • SOCIAL
                  • PYROCLASTIC FLOW - Montagne Pelee Volcano, Martinique - The city of St Pierre's 28,000 population died with only 2 survivors.
                    • Emotional Distress - breakdown of families
                  • Mt Pinatubo - 1.2 million people lost their homes around the volcano and had to migrate to shanty towns in Manila.
                    • Psychological effect on community as homes are destroyed
                  • Icelandic Eruption 2010 - 6,000 people affected as 4,000 flights cancelled.
                    • P&O ferries has to close all ferries & hire more staff
                      • ECONOMIC
                        • PYROCLASTIC FLOW - Redouet, Alaska - $1.8bn in damage.
                        • 2008 Kilauea, Hawaii - eruption led to acid rain, caused crops to fail => crops put in greenhouse => reduced profits.
                        • Mt Pinatubo 1991 - LAVA MOVEMENT & ASHFALL caused death 1mn livestock.
                        • £100mn spent on evacuation & emergency aid - OC of British taxpayers money being spent elsewhere.
                          • Soufriere Hills, Montserrat - 7,000 of 11,000 pop. forced to evacuate.

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