Hazard Distributions

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  • Hazard Distributions
    • Geophysical Hazards
      • Often occur at tectonic plate boundaries
        • Where continental and oceanic plates meet
          • At constructive, destructive, conservative boundaries
      • Earthquakes
        • Constructive
          • Fault lines created when a plate moves in a non-uniform way
            • Pressure built up, earthquakes occur at crack
        • Destructive
          • Less dense plate being subducted
            • Get stuck on each other building pressure
              • Release of pressure causes earthquake
        • Conservative
          • Two plates sliding past get stuck
            • Pressure builds, when released, earthquake occurs
      • Volcanoes
        • Constructive
          • Mantle melts to magma as plates separate
            • Magma rises, erupting as volcano
        • Destructive
          • Magma created by oceanic melting rises through continental
      • Landslides / Avalanches
        • Occur mainly at mountainous areas, after heavy rainfall or seismic activity
    • Hydro-meteorological Hazards
      • Tropical Cyclones
        • Between 5-20 degrees N/S of equator
          • Coriolis effect very weak on equator
            • Not enough spin created
        • Only over warm water (26 degrees)
          • At least 70m depths
      • Floods
        • Excessive rainfall and intense storms
        • El Nino and La Nina
        • 33% of world's area
          • i.e. 80% of population
      • Droughts
        • Affects over 33% of world area
          • Including 70% of population
    • Disaster Hotspots
      • Vulnerable places at risk of two or more hazards
        • California
        • Philippines

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