Instrumental Set Work - Haydn

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  • Haydn - Symphony No.26
    • Harmony
      • Bars 57-64 are based on a circle of fifths in the bass part on the first beat of each bar
      • Dominant pedal in the key of A minor (bars 65-68)
      • Dramatic use of diminished 7th chords for example bar 13
      • Appoggiaturas are important throughout,
        • some are long and diatonic (E in melody against D in bass bar 16)
        • Some are short and chromatic (F# in bars 40 and 42)
    • Structure + Tonality
      • Opening idea 44 bars repeated
        • First subject in D minor
        • Contrasting second subject in F major (the plainsong starting in bar 17)
      • Middle section (bars 45-79) in a variety of keys
      • Return to the opening section bar 80
        • First subject is extended by 4 bars
        • Second subject (bar 100) is now in the tonic major D major
      • Sonata Form
        • Exposition, Development, Recapitulation
      • Coda is an expansion of bars 43-44 from the end of the exposition
    • Melody
      • Bars 45-52 are based on a variant of the syncopated idea from the first subject
        • Transposed to F major and treated in sequence
      • Oboe plays a variant of Christ's plainsong (bars 65-68)
      • Wild leaps in the violin parts bar 41 to portray the excited cries of the crowd
    • Rhythm
      • Syncopation used throughout
      • Rests are used for articulation to separate the contrasting ideas for example bar 8
    • Texture
      • In bar 26 the oboes and second violins playing the main theme while simultaneously being decorated by the first violins create a heterophonic texture
      • Mainly melody dominated homophony
    • Contextual
      • Classical Symphony
      • Austrian classical composer 1735-1809
      • Symphony no.26 was composed in 1768
      • Sturm Und Drang (storm and stress)

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