Hard Water

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  • Created by: Lizzi
  • Created on: 17-05-13 11:43
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  • Hard Water
    • Made hard by dissolved compunds (eg: Ca, Mg)
      • they react with soap to form scum
      • temp. hard water can produce solid scale when heated (reduces appliance's efficiency)
      • hard water maintains teeth/bone health and prevents heart disease
    • Can be softened by removing salts that form scum and scale
      • temp. hardness removed by heating
      • hydrogencarbonate ions in temp. water decompose when heated. Carbonate ions react with Ca2+ and Mg2+ to make precipitates
      • both types of hard water can be softened by adding washing soda or using ion exchange resin
    • water for drinking should contain only low levels of dissolved substances and microbes
      • water is treated by filtering and adding chlorine (to kill microbes)
      • we can make pure water by distillation- but requires lots of energy and is expensive


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