Hard engineering strategies (along coasts)

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  • Hard engineering strategies
    • Sea wall
      • concrete/rock barrier placed at top of beach/foot of cliffs
      • has a curved face to reflect waves back into sea
      • Advantages
        • often has walkway for people to walk along
        • works at stopping sea
      • Disadvantages
        • very expensive and high maintenance costs
        • can be unnatural to look at
    • Rock armour
      • piles of large boulder dumped at foot of cliff
      • rocks absorb energy of waves protecting cliff
      • Advantages
        • fairly easy and cheap to maintain
        • often used for fishing and can provide interest to coast
      • Disadvantages
        • can be obtrusive
        • rocks can be expensive to transport as sometimes from abroad
    • Groynes
      • timber/rock structures built out to sea from coast
      • trap material transported by longshore drift
      • Advantages
        • result in bigger beach which can improve tourism
        • not too expensive
      • Disadvantages
        • are unnatural and rock groynes can be unnattractive
        • often lead to increased rates of erosion elsewhere


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