Hard engineering strategies

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  • Hard engineering strategies
    • building artificial structures aimed at controlling natural processes
    • Sea wall
      • concrete/rock barrier placed at top of beach or foot of cliffs
      • has a curved face to reflect the waves back into sea
      • Advantages
        • works at stopping the sea
        • often has a walkway for people to walk along
      • Disadvantages
        • can be unnatural to look at
        • very expensive and has high maintenance costs
    • Groynes
      • trap sediments being moved by longshore drift, therefore enlarging beach
      • timber/rock structures built out to sea from coast.
      • Advantages
        • result in bigger beach which can improve tourism
        • not too expensive
      • Disadvantages
        • groynes are unnatural and rock groynes can be unnattractive
        • often lead to increased rates of erosion elsewhere
    • Rock armour
      • piles of large boulders dumped at foot of a cliff
      • the rocks absorb the energy of the waves protecting the cliffs
      • Advantages
        • fairly cheap and easy to maintain
        • often used for fishing and can provide interest to coast
      • Disadvantages
        • rocks can be expensive to transport as are sometimes from abroad
        • can be obtrusive
    • Channel straightening
      • a river's course is straightened
      • meanders are cut out by building artificial straight channels
      • Advantages
        • water moves out of an area more quickly because it doesn't travel as far- reducing the riisk of flooding
      • Disadvantages
        • flooding may happen downstream of straightened channel instead as flood water is carried there faster
          • more erosion downstream bc water is flowing faster
  • timber/rock structures built out to sea from coast.

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