Hard Water

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  • Hard Water
    • Temporary
      • Permanent
        • Caused by dissolved calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate
        • Removed by: Adding washing soda crystals, using an ion exchange, distillation
        • Adding washing soda crystals
        • The carbonate ions react with the calcium ions in the water to form a precipitate of calcium carbonate, the sodium ions remain dissolved in the water
        • Precipitate -  a solid that forms when two solutions are mixed
        • CaSO4 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) > CaCO3 (s) + NaSO4(aq)
      • Caused by dissolved calcium hydrogen carbonate
      • Can be removed by boiling
      • Ca(HCO3)2 (aq) > CaCO3  (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)


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