Hard Determinism

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  • Hard Determinism
    • Incompatbilists
      • Deny Free Will
        • Free Will is an illusion
          • John Locke - Analogy (Sleeping man)
    • Principle of Causality
      • 19th Century Newtonian Physics
        • Everything must have a prior cause - a scientific explanation for how it came to be
          • Universe is a closed system
            • Everything within the universe has a cause. Humans are within the universe therefore them and their actions must also have a cause.
              • Therefore if all of our actions have a cause that makes it pre-determined.
                • If our actions are pre-determined we have no free will.
    • Behaviouralism
      • Milgram
        • Blind Obedience
          • 65%
            • Our behaviour is psychologically conditioned from birth. Each response and action by a human is like every other animal is due to instinct.
      • Pavlov
        • Classical conditioning
      • Skinner
        • Operant conditioning
    • Debate split. Internal vs. External causation
      • Internal Causation
        • Genetics
          • Predisposition towards certain behaviours or choices
            • Weakness - Do we give too much weight to our genes?
              • Weakness - Predisposition doesn't necessarily mean it definitely will happen
      • External Causation
        • Parents, friends influence our beliefs and personality. Our beliefs and personality influence our choices.
          • Clarence Darrow
            • Leopold and Loeb
              • The boys were a product of their upbringing
                • Can't be held responsible for their actions
                  • Weakness - Can't hold criminals responsible. No justice system. No one held accountable for their actions - anarchy
    • Theological Determinism
      • Pre-destination
        • God predetermines everything, including who he shall save
          • Humans have no free will. There's no point in them even trying to reach salvation. Their 'destination' has already been decided
            • Humans are naturally sinful. Those that are good are only so because God has decided to save them
      • John Calvin and St Augustine of Hippo
    • Ted Honderich
      • All of our choices, decisions, other mental events, and our actions are no more than effects of other equally necessitated events

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