Haiti Case Study

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  • Haiti
    • Location and Background
      • Haiti is a small island located in the Caribbean, South East of the USA and East of Cuba.
      • Its capital city is Port-au-Prince.
      • Development
        • GDP per capita (average income): $1,200 per person each year
        • People living in poverty: 80% of people live on $2 or less per day
        • Life expectancy: 62 years old
        • People per doctor: 0.25 doctors per 1,000 people
        • Adult literacy rate: 53% over 15 years old can read/write
        • Access to clean water: 46% of people have access to clean water
    • Causes
      • The earthquake was caused by the North American Plate sliding past the Caribbean Plate at a conservative plate margin.
      • The earthquake was caused by the North American Plate sliding past the Caribbean Plate at a conservative plate margin.
      • The earthquake struck at 16:53 (4:53pm) local time on Tuesday 12 January 2010.
    • Effects
      • Primary
        • 316,000 people were killed and 1 million people were made homeless.  3 million people were affected by the earthquake
        • 250,000 homes and 30,000 other buildings, including the President’s Palace
        • Transport and communication links were also badly damaged by the earthquake
        • Hospitals (50+) and schools (1,300+) were badly damaged, as was the airport’s control tower
        • The main prison was destroyed and 4,000 inmates escaped
        • 60% of government buildings, were either destroyed or badly damaged
      • Secondary
        • 1 in 5 people lost their jobs because so many buildings were destroyed.  Haiti’s largest industry, clothing was one of the worst affected
        • The large number of deaths meant that hospitals and morgues became full and bodies then had to be piled up on the streets
        • The large number of bodies meant that diseases, especially cholera, became a serious problem
        • It was difficult getting aid into the area because of issues at the airport and generally poor management of the situation
        • People were squashed into shanty towns or onto the streets because their homes had been destroyed leading to poor sanitation and health, and looting became a real problem
    • Responses
      • Short Term
        • $100 million in aid given by the USA and $330 million by the European Union
        • $100 million in aid given by the USA and $330 million by the European Union
        • 115,000 tents and 1,000,000+ tarpaulin shelters provided
        • Healthcare supplies provided to limit disease
        • Lack of immediate aid through poor planning, management and access meant that people had to try and rescue each other
        • 4.3 million people provided with food rations in the weeks following the earthquake
      • Long Twerm
        • 98% of the rubble on the roads hadn’t been cleared restricting aid access
        • Support for people without jobs, which equates to nearly 70% of the population, through cash/food-for-work projects
        • Temporary schools created and new teachers trainee
        • Water and sanitation eventually supplied for 1.7 million people

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