haemoglogen

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  • Haemoglobin
    • made from four protein molecules
      • globulin chains
      • Two alpha globulin chains and two beta globulin chains
      • In fetuses and infants, beta chains are not common and the hemoglobin molecule is made up of two alpha chains and two gamma chains
        • As the infant grows, the gamma chains are gradually replaced by beta chains, forming the adult hemoglobin structure.
    • Heme molecule
      • A globulin chain that contains an important central structure
        • Embedded within the heme molecule is iron that is vital in transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide in our blood.
      • The iron contained in hemoglobin is also responsible for the red color of blood
    • important role in maintaining the shape of the red blood cells
      • In their natural shape, red blood cells are round with narrow centers resembling a donut without a hole in the middle.
        • Abnormal hemoglobin structure can, therefore, disrupt the shape of red blood cells and impede their function and flow through blood vessels.
    • consists mostly of subunits
      • folded chains of a large number of amino acids
        • Polypepties
          • The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide created by a cell is in turn determined by the stretches of DNA called genes
            • amino acid sequence that determines the protein's chemical properties and function.
    • Hemoglobin has a quaternary structure characteristic of many multi-subunit globular proteins
      • comes from its four subunits in roughly a tetrahedral arrangement

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